Kashmir : Pakistan And The World Community Insist On Referendum

African kingdomsRelations between India and Pakistan are a classic model of insoluble frictions, now and then turning into military clashes on the border zones of Kashmir, which is one of the most militarized regions in the world. Peace periods are as rare as rain in the desert. The conflict of two powers is a legacy of British politics. When India finally gained independence from London, the first conflict with Pakistan took place in 1947-1948. Then the country of the pure (the name Pakistan is translated from the Urdu language) declared its own independence. A new Muslim state has appeared on the world map. The confrontation with India was built in from the moment the new political-state community was formed. The British conceived the forced withdrawal of their former colony: “Divide and conquer.” Pax Britannica reluctantly parted with its previously conquered territories thousands of miles from the British Isles. Continue reading “Kashmir : Pakistan And The World Community Insist On Referendum”

A programmer steals more than $ 10 million from Microsoft

Mountains are losing snowUkrainian citizen Vladimir Kasha stole more than $ 10 million from Microsoft, according to the materials in the criminal case. At 25, the young man led a luxury lifestyle, with cars and mansions between his properties.

Vladimir Kasha worked for Microsoft in the US, first as a contract employee, and from 2016 to 2018 as part of the company’s staff. He worked as a tester for the company’s online store, for which he had the ability to create real transactions with non-existent credit cards. Continue reading “A programmer steals more than $ 10 million from Microsoft”

You should know these 9 African kingdoms

African kingdomsThe cradle of humanity in South Africa is the scene of humanization, of human evolution. From the African continent, Homo sapiens moved all over the world. In Central America, the Mayas built impressive temples, and during ancient times, Greeks and Romans influenced people far beyond the Mediterranean. Already before, Ancient Egypt heralded the time of the African kings in the delta of the Nile. Apart from the kingship of Egypt, there were several other kingdoms in Africa that are rarely heard of. Even today, many tribes maintain millennia-old traditions. We introduce some African kingdoms that you should definitely know.

The Aksumite Empire

Period: circa 100 – 960 AD

The Aksumite Empire is the oldest in our list. Researchers in Ethiopia and Eritrea have found indications that agriculture was already practiced in this region 10,000 years ago. The African kingdom played a central role in the flourishing trade between Rome and ancient India. Continue reading “You should know these 9 African kingdoms”

The End of Hoplite Chauvinism

 Hoplite ChauvinismNear Athens, in the field of Marathon, the Persians were deployed. Opposite them the Athenian soldiers gather. The mood is characterized by fear. The Spartans are not there yet, the Persians were faster. You can no longer avoid the battle, you have to compete without the dreaded Spartans. The right wing of the Athenians is traditionally made by the strongest and best hoplite soldiers, who in their heavy bronze armor with the horsehair-crowned helmets, the conically shaped shields and the long spears make an impressive appearance and advance slowly in formation, with the slight right-hand spin, that is characteristic of their formations.

The day belonged to the Athenian hoplites. They defeated the Persian army, and the runner, who traveled 42 kilometers to Athens to deliver the victory message, is still considered the founder of the marathon today. But who were these hoplites who were immortalized on vases and played such a crucial role in Greek society? It was not the people who populated the streets of Athens and later exiled Thucydides. Continue reading “The End of Hoplite Chauvinism”

What is the Rosette Stone?

Rosette StoneIn 1822, the French Egyptology succeeded in deciphering the hieroglyphics. On a stone found by the French officer in The Rosette (Nile delta, Egypt), there was a Greek inscription in the lower part, while there were two texts with Egyptian characters over it. The comparison between the Greek text and the Egyptian characters eventually led to the decipherable of the hieroglyphics.

The deciphering of the hieroglyphics

The deciphering of the hieroglyphs goes back to the French Egyptology (1790-1832) in 1822.

After a long time of experimentation, he succeeded in deciphering the Egyptian signs with the help of the stone of Rosetta, also a stone of the rosette. Continue reading “What is the Rosette Stone?”

Historiography in ancient cultures

 ancient culturesWith the emergence and development of the science of history, humanity overcame early mythical and religious ideas about its development in a long and complicated process. In their place came more and more secure knowledge. This process of knowledge will continue as long as humanity exists.

The transition to actual historical science took place only at the beginning of the 19th century. That did not happen unprepared. More or less significant progress in the direction of a scientific study of history has existed since ancient times at every stage of historical development. There were remarkable approaches to a source-critical approach, to the emergence of individual historical auxiliary sciences as well as to the expression of genres in the depiction of history. Continue reading “Historiography in ancient cultures”

The First Punic War – Rome’s rise to world power

The First Punic War Depiction of a Roman legionary end of 3rd century

In the 70s of the 3rd century BC, Rome had reached dominance on the Italian peninsula. From all cities and peoples belonged as allies to the Roman Empire. The republic was stable, powerful and ambitious. On the opposite side of the Mediterranean, Carthage, not much older than Rome itself, had a position as a naval and trading power. Many colonies of Carthage moved along the Mediterranean coasts of Sicily, Spain, North Africa and Sardinia. His fleets ruled the western Mediterranean unchallenged. Carthage was satisfied with its extent; in contrast to Rome, it pursued no major expansive tendencies, but wanted to secure and expand its previous position. In Sicily, however, Hero had seized power over the great city of Syracuse and sought to strengthen the city’s power and develop it into a regional factor. It should be the ambitions of this Hero that tore Rome and Carthage into the longest coherent war of antiquity. Continue reading “The First Punic War – Rome’s rise to world power”

How the Moon Affects Our Life

How the Moon Affects The story starts with old empirical knowledge, of course with so many myths. But they are often known to have a true core. However, the current state of science in such discussions really does not decide whether a phenomenon is real or not. Unfortunately, many researchers today still will often adopt a negative attitude, as long as comprehensible explanations are missing – missing in the sense of: not yet found.

Especially with the moon, there is no consensus as to whether and to what extent it has real effects on life. And especially with the moon, it can be stated that skepticism usually results from a lack of knowledge about triggering factors and contexts. No wonder, the research is still in its infancy. What do you want to expect!

Continue reading “How the Moon Affects Our Life”

Warlord Cid – War was his business

Warlord War was his business, no question. But what is the story of Rodrigo Vivar’s truth and what is a transfigured adventure story from the time of the Reconquista, can be very difficult to distinguish. In any case, Rodrigo, son of Diego was born in Spain around 1045 and died in 1099 in a battle against the North African Almoravids in the defense of Valencia, which he had just reconquered.

In the struggle of Christians against the Moors and Arabs, who raged in the Middle Ages for centuries on the Iberian Peninsula, the knight played a dazzling role. With his Castilian King Alfonso VI. was the Cid – a derivative of his Arabic nickname the Lord – violently divided, he led a small independent mercenary troupe and mastered with these robber barons very cleverly the newly conquered area around Valencia. Continue reading “Warlord Cid – War was his business”

The Historian of Time Passed Away Why it is How it is And Why it Exists.

 Time passed awayThe whole world feels the great loss of one of the most influential figures in the field of science. The British scientist Stephen Hawking died on march 14, 2018 at his home in Cambridge in England at 76 years of age.

The world regrets the great loss of one of the most influential figures in the field of science; the British scientist Stephen Hawking died on march 14, 2018 at his home in Cambridge in England at 76 years of age.

Hawking will go down in history for his work on black holes and for unifying the two famous theories of twentieth-century physics: that of relativity as well as that of quantum mechanics. The flag of Gonville and Caius college in Cambridge, of which hawking was a student and then a teacher, flies this Wednesday at half mast. Continue reading “The Historian of Time Passed Away Why it is How it is And Why it Exists.”