Although Cameron and his team hope to learn more about the biology of the depths of the Mariana Trench, geologists already know a lot about how the Mariana Trench formed and why this is the deepest place on Earth. James Cameron successfully sank 6.8 miles (11 kilometers) into the deepest part of the Mariana Trench on a single-manned deep sea challenger submersible.
Best known as the director of Hollywood, and now a researcher at the National Geographic Society, Cameron is one of three people immersed in the deepest point on Earth, and the only person who stayed there long enough to make observations.
Ancient lava forming the Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench is not really a deep, narrow furrow, which implies the word trench. And rather the abyss marking the subsection zone. Zones occur where one part of the seabed in this case the Pacific plate – penetrates another, the Philippine plate. Although, ultimately, the tectonic forces deformed the Pacific plate so that it almost vertically penetrated the Earth’s mantle.
The tectonic plate is a huge piece of rock, 60 miles thick (97 kilometers) or more, a geophysicist at the University of Texas, Dallas. In order to dive back into the ground, the plate should smoothly bend downwards. The age of the western part of the Pacific Ocean bed is about 180 million years. This is one of the reasons for the deep location of the Mariana Trench.
The sea floor is formed as lava in the mid-ocean ridges. When fresh, the lava is relatively warm and mobile and is high above the main mantle. But with age and distance from the source, it slowly cools and becomes more dense, which leads to immersion in the mantle, as in the case of the Mariana Trench.
Mariana Trench can cause strong earthquakes?
There are two factors that make the 1580-mile (2550-kilometer) Mariana Trench very deep. On the one hand, the trough lies far from the mainland and this means that it is distant from the mouths of the turbid streams.
Many other underwater troughs are more filled with sediment, director of the Tectonics and Sea Bottom Mapping Laboratory at the University of Oregon. This one is not.In addition, the nearby fault lines of the Pacific Plate have turned the gutter into a narrow process, which allows the plate to bend more steeply downward than in other subsection zones.
Because of this orientation, most scientists thought that the zone of the Mariana Trench would not be the source of major earthquakes. This is because the dense rocks of the Pacific plate on the gutter section should not press up against the Philippine plate, creating friction that can cause earthquakes.
But in 2004, the earthquake in Sumatra and the 2011 earthquake in Japan, destroyed the theory of origin in other, similar places where giant earthquakes were not expected. Thus, there is no reason to believe that the Mariana Trench region could not produce an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.5 points. Two events are known in this region that caused local tsunamis in 1826 and 1872.