What Is Civilization And How Do We Find Out About Them?

The term “Civilization” is usually applied to peoples whose culture has already reached a certain level of development. This level is characterized by the invention of writing, the creation of a calendar, and the development of large public entities, such as settlements and cities, with a well-organized management system (administration), codes of law and monumental architecture.

A lot of time has passed since man achieved what we call civilized society.

At first man, like animals was in a wild state. He did not speak, and only used what he could find for food. Later people began to live collectives, learned how to obtain fire, and later learned how to make tools and hunt. Man learned to make pottery for cooking, began to live in tribes, could move from one place to another.

The next stage of human development, which was called the era of barbarism, showed that man learned to grow food from seeds and tame animals. Then he began to smelting such metals as copper and iron, which made it possible to produce better tools, build a home. The appearance of rock paintings can be considered the end of the era of barbarism and the beginning of the era of civilization.

The invention of writing is considered the beginning of the era of civilization since it allowed a person to record the events of the past. Thus, people could learn the experience of their ancestors. It happened about 5-6 thousand years ago.

By the time the man reached this stage of development, he, too, was largely improved. He developed agriculture and industry to such a level that people could live in villages and even in cities.

There was a management, trade, laws, there was also a migration of people.

The earliest known to us from the history of civilization is the Egyptian and Babylonian. The Egyptians invented the writing 4500 years ago. They had a thoughtful management system; They used mathematical calculations when building pyramids; They had a calendar; There were skillful architects; Various mechanisms were applied.

The most ancient in the world of civilization arose over 5000 years ago in the Middle East, in Egypt,India and China. About 4000 years ago, the civilization developed on the island of Crete, and about 4,500 years ago the Sumerian civilization that existed on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers developed.

We have quite a lot of information about how people lived in that era. Most of this information was obtained by scientists from the sources mentioned below. Dry climatic conditions allowed to save many things that people used then. Since the XVIII century archeologists have unearthed many settlements cities, and burials dating back to the era of ancient civilizations.

Ancient Egyptian tombs allow you to get a lot of information about the life and beliefs of the Egyptians. The walls inside the tombs were richly decorated with murals, reproducing scenes from the private life of the buried, as well as from the life of the gods. In most cultures of antiquity, people’s property was taken to be buried in graves along with its owners. Ornaments, household items, household items, vessels, jewelry and even remnants of clothes and food – all this was found in tombs. The oldest forms of writing, such as hieroglyphics and cuneiform, were found on the walls of buildings and clay tablets, as well as on scrolls made from a special plant – papyrus.

For many centuries, the content of these letters remained an unsolved mystery, but since the last century, scientists have had the opportunity to read them. Ancient texts reported interesting details about the most diverse things – about the methods of governing the state, about the system of legislation, about the rule of different kings, about scientific knowledge, about religious customs, and about the gods.

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