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In the human intestine live life forms unknown to science

21 Nov

 scienceA new genetic analysis of human intestinal bacteria gave very surprising results. It turns out that live in our intestines so strange creatures, some biologists argue that this is an entirely new form of life, yet unknown to science.
Of course, such statements should be taken with skepticism, but some grounds they do have. Over the past ten years, new technologies have allowed scientists to study the genome for the first time to explore our own microbial those clusters invisible who live in us and on us. Research microbial literally rewrites now textbooks on human biology as scientists discover that everything from our mouths to gut and skin – is a complex and diverse ecosystem. According to some estimates, the microbes in our body more than just cells.



This week New Scientist wrote about a study conducted by Philippe Lopez and Eric Batesta at the University Pierre and Marie Curie. They have developed a new method for identifying the most differing forms of life in the intestinal microbiome, namely, by examining cemeystv 86 genes that rarely transferred from organism to organism. These genes can be used in theory for the distribution of life forms on the three known biological domains: bacteria and eukaryotes Archean.
As a result, geneticists have come to a very surprising result: about a third marker gene studied by Lopez and Batesta not belong to any known human domain. Does this mean that we have opened a fourth domain right under the nose or rather, within it, so to speak? Maybe. But there are other versions. First, these specific marker genes may be more variable than we know. In the end, we are only beginning to understand the extent of genetic diversity of the microbial world. There is also the possibility that in such an isolated environment like the human gut, natural selection has led to a new level of genetic diversity, which before we never ever saw.
To really answer whether there is in the bowels of our representatives absolutely new branch of the evolutionary tree, it is necessary to isolate and study these strange organisms with genes. This task will not be easy, since most of the bacteria we still do not know how to cultivate in the laboratory. But the outlook is so exciting that genetics, of course, try to do it.

 
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Posted by on November 21, 2015 in Science

 

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