India during the period of the Stone Age

IndiaIn India, it was born one of the world’s oldest civilizations – are highly developed culture that had a profound influence on the subsequent development of the country, the culture of many peoples of the East, Central and Southeast Asia, the Far East. Archaeological data show that India was inhabited in ancient times, and some anthropologists consider India as one of the possible areas, where the process humanization of a monkey. In many parts of the country found the stone tools of the Lower Paleolithic.

Independently of each other as if having two centers nizhnepaleoliticheskoy culture: in the north – the culture of Sawan (Indus Valley, modern Pakistan) and in the south, in the Deccan, – the so-called culture of Madras. These Paleolithic site located on the banks of the river, where there were more favorable conditions for human habitation. The first such park was opened in 1863 near Madras, so tools that are typical of the Lower Paleolithic South India – hand-axes became known as Madras-mi.

In nizhpepaleoliticheskogo person in the north there were other tools. This massive pebble chopping tools, called choppers. Finds of Paleolithic tools is not limited to these two areas. Lower-pepaleolpticheskis parking is now known in Central and Western India. It happened as if the connection Sawan-ray and madrassknh traditions. Recent studies have shown that in more southern areas dominated Madras minced, and closer to the north increases the number of guns soanskogo type.

 The distinction forms guns was primarily due to the different natural conditions, stocks suitable for the treatment of types of stone. It is no accident that the greatest number of sites discovered in caves near the river valleys and foothills of the Deccan-ki Northern India. The climate of these regions is more favorable, the fauna is very rich. The main occupations of the population in this period were gathering and hunting. People lived in large groups, that was absolutely necessary in the difficult conditions of the era.

He most important step in the history of human society was the transition to the Upper Paleolithic, when there was a man of the modern type.In recent years, archaeologists have discovered a number of Indian sites of the Upper Paleolithic. Major changes associated with the emergence of tribal communities, occurred at a time in the organization of human groups.According to anthropologists, in the Upper Paleolithic era dominated by blacks, and in the Mesolithic were Caucasians in the West and in the East – Mongoloids.

In the Mesolithic era began the domestication of animals. At the end of this period appears the first ceramics and planned transition to agriculture. The most characteristic monument of the Mesolithic is in Langnadzh village in Gujarat. Material Langnadzha allows you to explore the characteristics of the life of early man in the Mesolithic and Neolithic transition to trace. As shown by excavations, the main tools were stone plate and microlites regular geometric forms, which were used as arrowheads and inserts both wooden and bone handles.

Archaeologists have identified two periods in the history of Langnadzha. At the end of the first period appears handmade ceramics. In the second period it has already made on the potter’s wheel and signs. In the first period the population was engaged mainly in hunting and fishing, and secondly – begins the transition to agriculture. Mesolithic parking found in other areas of India – the south (near Tinnevelly) and east (parking Birbhanpur West Bengali). For them, too, characterized by microliths on different forms.

Microlithic machinery existed and later – in the era of metal. Already in the Mesolithic period reveals uneven development of individual regions of India. Population Mesolithic sites south India early in the fourth millennium BC. e. engaged in fishing and hunting, and in the north, in Sindh, passed the accelerated development of settled agricultural crops. This irregularity has been typical for subsequent periods – Neolithic and Chalcolithic.

Neolithic era was marked by the development of agriculture and animal husbandry, the transition to a sedentary lifestyle. The most developed in this period were the Neolithic cultures of Baluchistan and Sindh, as it was preceded by that of urban civilization on the In us.Judging from the excavations in Keely, Gul Mohammed (Valley Queta, modern Pakistan), early in the fourth millennium BC. e. In northern Balochistan there were settlements of the Neolithic tribes – pastoralists and farmers. Buildings are built from mud brick.

In this period they were domesticated sheep and goats. The Metal was not yet known, the basic stone tools, including a plate of chalcedony, flint and jasper. In the next period there is pottery, and finally – the first signs of dating with the metal. The bones of cattle native species indicate the local origin of agricultural crops in Balochistan. A similar culture was discovered in eastern Balochistan in Rana Ghunday; identifies certain analogy here with the cultures of Iran.  Dreganeyshy layer is dated (using the radiocarbon method) XXVII – XXVI centuries. BC. e.

 For the follow-up period {XXVI- XXIII centuries. BC. e.) Is characterized by findings of terracotta figurines, pottery and polished individual items from MSDD. At the same time in the northern regions, such as Kashmir (Burzahom village, near Srinagar), Neolithic culture was more archaic type. The oldest houses were arranged in pits dug in the clay soil. Near the entrance bylzh found pockets. Pottery rough, made by hand. We found a large number of bone harpoons, vehi, needles n t. E. The population is engaged mainly in fishing.

Go ck  farming begins here later in the XIX-XVII centuries. BC. e. During this period, already in some places are built of mud and adobe bricks. In the southern Neolithic period is best known for his excavations in Sanganakallu (district Bsllarp) and Pickle-Hale. Early stage is represented by polished stone tools and pottery made by hand. It dates back to around the XXI century. BC. e. The earliest settlers were already domesticated sheep, goat n. Their homes are built mostly on hills, sometimes in the hollows between the hills.

Residents Pishshhala cattlemen and (farmers. It found special pens for livestock. The homes were built of clay and bamboo. Some scientists believe that these settlements were established by the Iranian tribes penetrated into these areas. But this view is contrary to the available materials, pointing to a local tradition. Among the Neolithic cultures of eastern India into two distinct zones: Bihar, Orissa and Assam. In the last Neolithic cultures influenced Southeast Asia. In the early cultures of Bihar-Orissa is dominated by local features. External influence refers to a later time.

 With Great difficulties associated with dating the Neolithic cultures of eastern India. Separate tests conducted with the help of radiocarbon analysis showed that the Neolithic began here quite late. While in the north, east and south of India was the development of the Neolithic cultures of the Indus Valley already existed a highly developed urban civilization of the Bronze Age.

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