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Ancient Indian Harappan civilization

05 Aug

indian civilizationAmong the scientists it was fairly widely spread opinion about the late appearance of civilization in India. Some of them believed that it brought outside the Aryan tribes. Often expressed the point of view of the isolation of the ancient Indian culture, its backwardness in comparison with the cultures of other countries of the ancient East. The discovery and study of Harappan civilization were clear proof of the antiquity of ancient Indian culture and identity.

Even in 1875, English archaeologist A. Kanin-ghem found in Harappa (modern Pakistan, District of Montgomery, West Punjab) with an unknown print-pad tshsyu but scientific excavations only a stitch in the 20s of XX century. Indian archaeologists R. Sahni and RD Baierdzhi discovered the ancient city of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (modern Pakistan, Larkhana District, Sindh). Since then, the problem of this civilization are the center of attention of historians and archaeologists claim many countries.

Theory of the origin and new materials.

One of the most difficult issues in the study of Harappan civilization yavlyaetsyavopros about its origins. There were Razim point of view – on the basis of the Sumerian culture of Harappa-tion, the establishment of its Indo-Aryan tribes, and therefore the Harappan civilization was seen as Vedic. Renowned archaeologist R. Heine-Geldern even wrote that civilization on the Indus appeared suddenly, as no traces of the previous development if not detected. Over the past t ode collected important new material on the local origin of this culture.

Unfortunately, the groundwater is prevented archaeologists to follow the lowest elephant in Mohenjo-Daro.Archaeological excavations in Balochistan and Sindh show-LP, which is the fourth-third millennium BC. about.there were agricultural crops that have a lot to do with culture and ranneharappskoy which Harappan settlement for a long time maintained contacts. In Sindh zemledelcheszhie culture appear later, suggesting that penetration here some tribal areas of Baluchistan and southern Afghanistan.

The Harappan Indus Valley settlements there, obviously not at once and not simultaneously. Probably because of a single center, where once there was just urban culture, there was a gradual settlement of its creators. In this regard, of particular interest are the study of the French archaeologist Jean M. Casale settlement Amri, who established stratigraphy of the period before doharappskogo pozdneharappskogo.

 It traced the development of the local cultures: from the time when most of the pottery made by hand, with no potter’s wheel, when there were only structures, and the use of metals is only beginning to more advanced phases, marked by painted pottery, and more durable adobe buildings. The lower layers doharaplskogo period are ana-ogy with early agricultural cultures of Baluchistan, in the later layers of ceramic appears rapneharappskih settlements of the Indus Valley. Finally, excavations have shown that the tradition of typical Amri culture coexist with the Harappan.

In the most under Harappa fortifications was found pottery culture Amri, and in the lower layers Mohsndzho Daro – ceramics Baluchistan cultures, indicating that apparently not only close contacts Indies settlements with agricultural crops in Balochistan and Sindh, but also that the Harappan Civilization has local roots. It originated on the basis of the tradition of agricultural crops is th raiodta and above all the Indus Valley. Excavations Pakistani archaeologists in Kot Diji (near the modern Haypura) showed that in the period doharappsky existed here already highly developed culture: scientists have discovered a citadel and the residential neighborhoods that have arisen, according to radiocarbon analysis, XXVII-XXVI centuries. and up.

About.Pottery from Kot Diji rannogo period has analogies with pottery agricultural settlements in Sindh and Balochistan, and later – with the Harappan. It is possible to trace the evolution of the local tradition to the fact Harappan dating XXI-XX willows. BC. e. The Explicit predharappsky period was inaugurated by Indian archaeologists during excavations in Kalibangane (Rajasthan), where on one hill settlements were harappantsev predecessors, and on the nearby – the creators have built in the Harappan culture. Pottery predharapp-sky settlement has many similarities with ceramics Amri and Côte Didzhp. Thus, the scientists were able to trace the development of culture on the basis haraplskoy more ancient local traditions.

However, the Harappan civilization was a new stage, a qualitative leap in the development of ancient cultures of the Indian subcontinent, marked the emergence of urban civilization. Of great importance was obviously the Indus river system, which creates favorable conditions for the development of material culture and the economy and to create urban settlements centers of handicrafts and trade.

 It is no coincidence most of all haranpskih settlements located along the banks of the Indus and its tributaries. Late Harappan settlements appeared in the upper reaches of the Ganges and the Yamuna (Jumna modern).Much of origin haraplskoy culture is still not entirely clear and needs further development, but the theory linking the creation of this alien civilization – arias IPT Sumerians, currently represent only historiographical interest.

The area of ​​distribution

In 20-ies of XX century, when the scientific study of Harappan civilization, there was a view of the relatively narrow limits of this culture. Indeed, the first Harappan settlements were found only in the Indus Valley. Now, as a result of the modern archaeological research, it became clear that the Harappan civilization was spread on a vast territory from north to south over 1,100 km from west to east over 1600 km.Excavations at Kathiaarskom Peninsula showed that the population is gradually moving to the south, kolonizuya new territory.

 Currently, the southernmost considered Harappan settlement at the mouth of the river Narbada, but we can assume that harappantsy penetrated further south. They rushed to the east and, dominating all new areas. Archaeologists discovered haratshskoe settlement near modern Allahabad. So we create different versions haragshskoy culture, although in general it was a common culture with the established tradition. We can assume that some within the diversity of this vast civilization reflect different ethnic basis and the unequal development of those areas where there were the creators of this civilization.

Chronology

Chronology of Harappan civilization, scientists are now determined in various ways. First of all, this comparison Indies and Mesopotamian-ing things (eg Indies seals found in the cities of Mesopotamia), spectral analysis of earthenware products, carbon-nyi analysis of things which began to address in recent years, as well as data sources Akkadian on trade relations with East. First, scientists are very udrevnyali age Harappan cities of culture, based only on general considerations of the similarity of the development of civilization in Sumer and India.

The largest and one British archaeologist and pioneers indpshzhoy archeology, J.. Marshall, in Nachet 30s dated Indies culture from 3250 to 2750 BC. e. When the print was published Indies type found during excavations of the ancient cities of Mesopotamia, it was found that most of them linked with the rule of argon and I (2369- 2314 BC. E.), As well as periods of Yixing (2024-1799 gg. BC. e.) and Lars (2024-1762 gg. BC. e.). On this basis, scientists have concluded that the strongest connection between Mesopotamia and India conditionally can be attributed to the 23 – 18 BC

It is significant that in the Akkadian texts of the greatest number of references to trade with the eastern regions, including the Dilmun and Meluhoy, which are identified by scientists from India or adjacent to these areas falls on the period of Ur III (2118-2007 gg. To n. Of .) and Larsa dynasty. Great interest was the discovery of a pas cuneiform tablets dating from the 10th year of the king Lars -pravleniya Gungunum (1923 BC. E.).

Seal type Indies. All these data suggest that the heyday of the Indies city – the end of the third – the beginning of the second millennium BC. about. The excavations of Mesopotamian (cities seals were found in layers Kassite period, reflecting the continuation of contacts and in this era. In the upper layers of Harappa were found faience beads, spectral analysis which found their identity beads from Knossos in Crete (XVI c. To n. o.). based on this last period in the history of Harappa and can be dated to the XVI century. BC. on.

Certain adjustments to the scheme introduced Carbonneau analysis. For Kalibangana initial layers charapnskoy culture date back to the XXII. BC, and the last period – 18 – 17 centuries. BC. e .; for Moenjodaro similar dates: heyday – 22 – 19 centuries., the last period – XVIII century. BC. e. (± 115 years).Currently, many researchers have conventionally dated to the beginning of the Harappan culture in 2300 BC. e., a period of “decline” – 18 n. BC. e. (1750 to n. O.). This chronology points Ua existence of contacts with Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley settlements still doharappsky period.

When the history of Indian civilization dating should take into account the existence of different times God’s fool and settlements in different areas. The excavation of PA Kathnavarskom Peninsula, in particular, showed that after the demise of the main centers of the Indus Valley are still ongoing, although mutating exist Harappan city culture. It is likely that later date defines the beginning of the Harappan culture Kathiavarakom Peninsula (Lothal for radiocarbon analysis gives 2130 (2125) -1895 (1870) years. BC. E.), Related to the relocation of inhabitants of these areas as a result of the Indus Valley Getting There decline of major urban centers.

The city and its peculiarities

The existence of large cities, the presence of strontium urban planning construction indicate a high degree of Harappan civilization. The excavations were discovered several large cities. The biggest of them – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Moenjodaro occupied an area of ​​2.5 sq. km., and its population is believed by some scientists, could be estimated at 35 thousand. people (and sometimes provides a larger number – up to 100 thousand. people).

Judging from the excavations, urban centers had similar planning system: large God’s fool consisted of two main parts – the western side of the citadel, where, obviously, housed the city government and the so-called lower God’s fool, where are concentrated the main residential building. The residential part of the city used to have a rectangular shape. The citadel was built on a high brick platform, towering pad rest of the city. She was supposed to protect against floods, and that was a terrible disaster for the cities of the Indus Valley.

Communication between the two parts was obviously limited. For example, in Kalibangane during the excavations it was discovered only two entrances, linking the citadel with the “lower city”. If necessary, these inputs could evidently be closed and thereby rail in urban vtasti by ordinary people. At the edge of the citadel in Haraszti it held a special precession road that troops were moving, and the various processes. The Citadel was well fortified with powerful stacks and towers. Excavations revealed Kalibangane massive brick wall of the citadel.

 Inside her lo-lag of religious buildings and, obviously, of an administrative nature. In the citadel of Mohenjo-Daro was a huge swimming pool (width 7 m, length 12 m, depth of nearly 2.5 m) that may have been part of a religious complex and served as a special ritual ablutions. With the help of a special system in the pool mud pit is constantly receiving fresh water. Archaeologists opened steps leading believed, on the second floor structure. Near the pool is a public barns for storing grain l kind of meeting room (or the market, according to (some scientists), who had several rows of stone bases for columns (columns were obviously wood and therefore not preserved).

Public barns were found in Harappa, north of the citadel itself, near the river. Have a special stone platforms near barns indicates that there took place the threshing grain: in floor cracks Archaeology found spikelets of wheat and barley. Probably the grain delivered here by boat on the river, and then placed in the barn. According to a strict plan to build and neighborhoods that make up the “lower city”. There were main streets that are wider at Mohenjo-Daro reached 10 meters. They intersect at a right angle to the smaller streets, sometimes so narrow that even povozkp not always able to move on them.

Residential buildings were of different sizes. Some reached three floors (evidenced by the remains of stairs) and ends with flat roofs. It was apparently the home of wealthy citizens. Special windows in them there, and light and air to enter through small holes that were made in the upper part of the walls. The doors were made of wood. For the construction of roofs than wood used as hard-packed mud. Each house had a special utility rooms and a courtyard where there is a kitchen for cooking. The kitchen had special pockets, and there were big vessels for the storage of grain and oil. Bread baked in special ovens. In the yards and kept sheep.

Poor people living in huts and barracks. The Harappa near the walls of the citadel near the sites for threshing grain were discovered two rows of buildings, each of which represents one tiny room. Similar homes are in Mohenjo-Daro, where apparently lived impoverished artisans, temporary workers and slaves. On the streets of the city has shops and craftsmen’s workshops. The residential part of the city could be, and religious buildings. English archaeologist M. Wheeler discovered in Mohenjo-Daro building on a massive platform, with stairs leading probably upstairs, and the remains of a stone sculpture. The entire complex, he suggested as a temple.

The main building material was burnt brick, but also used raw. In Kalibangane burnt brick was mainly for the construction of wells and washing rooms. Much attention was paid to urban water supply and sewerage system. Almost every house had a well, and the streets were built public wells. One of the most advanced in the Ancient East was the sewerage system in the cities of Indian civilization. On the streets there were special septic tanks where sewage flowed; then the dirty water enters the TV, which obviously cleaned regularly.

 These canals were built of brick and covered on top as bricks and stone slabs. In the context of the Indian climate, population density and poor sanitation and hygiene organized system of water supply and sanitation is of utmost importance. The peculiar shape of the city opened by archaeologists during excavations of Lothal (Saurashtra), which was not just a shopping center, but also the port. He was surrounded by a stone wall, residential construction (to be saved from the flood) were placed on a special platform.

In the eastern part of the settlement was a shipyard (size 218X37 m), which channels connect with the river, which flows into the sea. The excavations discovered the remains of one of the channel length of over 2.5 km. The rest of the city was living, which, along with the main street (4-6 m wide) were small and narrow lanes (up to 2 m in width). On the main street located handicraft workshops.

Going public

Despite the high level of urban construction, most of the population lived in the Indus Valley Civilization and rural settlements and engaged mainly in agriculture. India Valley was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in the East. There has long been cultivated various agricultural crops. Judging from the excavations, the population of the Harappan civilization was familiar with wheat (two varieties), barley, sesame seeds, legumes. Rice grains (in the settlements of the Indus Valley were found, but (the study of Lothal and Rapgpura (in Saurashtra) in a layer of clay and pottery, archaeologists found a rice husk.

This suggests that the population of these regions engaged and rice cultivation. During the excavation of Mohenjo-Daro was found a small piece of cotton cloth, which clearly indicates the cultivation of cotton. The population was familiar and gardening. Farmers skillfully used the Indus floods, and perhaps resorted to artificial irrigation. The excavations, unfortunately, do not allow the judge agricultural tools. According to some scholars ( for example, DD Kosombi), there was no plow, harrow the land was treated moldings.

Considerable significance was cattle. Because pets have been known sheep, goat, cow, cat, dog. Divorce and chickens. Some data suggests that the elephant was tamed. Among scholars debated the issue, did the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization horse, but so far no direct evidence of using the horse as a pet years. Copper and bronze were the main metals are produced from production tools, vessels, weapons and crafts. At this time it was well known already melting, casting and forging of metals. The analysis showed the presence of metal objects small proportion of nickel and arsenic. For the manufacture of metal figures used the so-called lost-wax method.

Not lost its importance and the stone from which I do a lot of decorating weapons, but no trace of iron in Indian civilization settlements have been found. I Iron India appears later, after the decline of the Harappan culture.Artisans jewelers also used gold and silver. Ornate enjoyed great demand among notable persons.During the period of Harappan civilization have spread such crafts as spinning and weaving, bone carving and metal, making ceramics. During excavations in many homes were opened spindles. Pottery richly ornamented, mostly geometric and floral patterns. The vessels were made ua potter’s wheel n-obiga were in special furnaces, business and glazed pottery.

Political Organization and Social Structure

The political organization of Indian civilization is still a matter of dispute among scholars, although the opening strongholds in Mohezhdzho-daro, Harappa and Kalibangane gives grounds to speak about class stratification. Sveg available data untenable assertion of some foreign researchers, the nature of the pre-class society Indies. The citadel was obviously rate ruler (or rulers) and his palace, here is the city government) controls the life of the city, the complex system of urban water supply and sanitation. They were administered, in all probability, and public granaries. We can assume that in the city was also a special City Council. It is possible that members of the council met in so-called boardroom, which was opened in Mohenjo-Daro.

The two largest cities, as already mentioned, were Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, which, according to some scientists, the two capitals were either one or two political groups. The question of where and how to manage all this significant settlement on the territory of civilization, is still undecided, but attention is drawn to the existence of a unified system of measures and always writing, of similar construction standards, is equally planning and so on.

Very controversial is the question of political power in the Indies cities and nature of the class structure, some researchers (VV Struve in the USSR, the GDR Ruben V.) suggested on the basis of the slave Harappan society, but this conclusion requires dopolnitelnvh data and evidence. Some scientists compared it with the political organization of ancient Mesopotamia, considering that on the Indus and power belonged to the priests, which owns all the land fund. It is possible that the Harappan centers have been republican device.

The excavations clearly showed the presence of significant wealth inequality. The large three-storey houses lived, obviously, the rich citizens – merchants, prosperous artisans and the poor were forced to live in tiny domish-kah pronounced differences in wealth and by reference to the burial. Rich citizens were buried with jewelery, painted vessels; (Grave goods of the poor are much more modest. Scientists believe that the Harappan towns were the slaves who lived in huts, curled threshing grain, carrying heavy loads, and possibly participating in the clean-up sewers.

At Harappa, as noted, the wall the citadel, near the public granaries and series platforms for corn shot up, opened a small shack where apparently lived dependent workers or slaves. In Kalibangane Lothal and such structures were found, which gave reason scientists (for example, the French archaeologist Jean M . Casale) express an opinion on a more liberal government in these cities Po compared to the authoritarian regime in Harappa.

This point of view is not convincing enough, but it can be assumed a difference in the political organization haraizhzhih cities. Interesting interpretation advanced English scientist D. Gordon, who offered to treat some terracotta figurines like slaves (they depict people sitting on their haunches and compressing his knees; Color them round checker). In this regard, JM Casal, highlighting a group of miniature seals with a very simple, considering them as a kind of “identity” of workers or slaves.

In general excavations allow conditionally identify several social groups, such as priests, merchants, craftsmen, dependent population; obviously, we can talk about a special group of military. This stratification was the basis for some scholars see in the Harappan society embryos caste caste organization.

Trade and External Relations

Cities Harappan civilization were centers of domestic and foreign trade, which was conducted by land and by sea. On the development of trade and direction of trade relations saying how archaeological material and written evidence contained in the Near Eastern sources. During excavations in Mohenjo-Daro was found two-wheeled toy model pavozki. Obviously, with such wagons engaged in domestic traffic.

 Indies cities had well-established contacts with the regions of South India, where precious metals were delivered. In recent years become known Harappan civilization due to settlements of Southern Turkmenistan (excavations VM, Yassona in Altyntepe). As a result, finds seals, beads, shells and other things rappskih ha in the cities of Mesopotamia, as well as seals mesopo tamskogo-type Indies cities can assume the close trade ties with the Indus Valley Schumer.

 During excavations in Sumer was found a piece of fabric with a print-harap pskoy printing. Trade with Schumer implemented, obviously, sea, passed through Bahrain, the idea was found items similar to the Harappan. On the broad scope wraith trade show and the results of excavations in Lothal. Archaeologists discovered here a large shipyard, docks for ships, found stone anchors. Image available on some ships n terracotta seals of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, and Lothal archaeologists lucky enough to discover a model ship with a recess obviously mast.

In Lothal was found a round seal, similar to the seals found in Bahrain and in the cities of Mesopotamia. In the Akkadian sources said about traveling merchants in overseas countries, including the mention of the suffering of Dilmun, Magan and Meluka. Dilmup matched by some researchers as already mentioned, Bahrain, others tend to see him as areas Harappan civilization. Magan is sometimes placed in Baluchistan, and even Meluka correlated with Mohenjo-Daro. Thus, the question of identification etih names have not yet been resolved. However, the very fact of trade and cultural relations with the cities of Harappan civilization, Mesopotamia indisputable.

Religion

Archaeological materials are representations of the religious beliefs of the population Harappan civilization. And in the citadel, and in the living quarters of the city were open structure that scholars rightly rassmatrpvayut cathedral-like structure. These temples were apparently associated ritual pools and stone sculptures found in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. According to some researchers, temples and some sculptures were dedicated to a male deity, which scientists correlate with the bot Shiva later time. On one of the seals found Three-Faced deity depicted sitting in a special position on the Ionic low base, as it were, to which adjoin antelope figures.

At the head of the deity peculiar hairstyle in form of horns. On both sides of the deity are some wild animals. At the time, George. Marshall, who directed the splitting, believed that the whole is an image of the god Shiva in the form of Pashupati- patron and protector of cattle. It is significant that in the early Hindu texts Shiva is described as the head of the Yogi, as a god, wearing her hair in the form of horns. This interpretation is supported by many researchers today, indicates communication with the Hindu religious beliefs residents Harappan civilization.

 In support of this conclusion and say the image on the animal print (eg, bull, tiger, etc.). Solasno predstavlepiyam religious Hindu gods associated with certain animals: Shiva – bull Nandini, his wife accompanies Tiger. We can assume that the image of various animals are remnants of totemic representations and certain animals may be a totem tribal groups. Judging by the seals, to the Indies cities, there customs of worship fire, water, wood. Scientists have conducted a detailed study of the images PA Harappan seals, and it is possible to identify certain cosmographical harappantsev and mythological ideas. It is significant that many of these ideas have a direct analogy with the religious beliefs of Hinduism.

Of particular interest are similar to some Sumerian subjects in the relative frequency of episodes of the famous legends of Gilgameshs. However, Harappan seals mountain curbs tigers, not lions. During the excavation was found a considerable number of terracotta figurines of women, which is clearly indicative of the cult of the mother goddess. Many residents views on religion Harappan civilization of their sculptures are largely hypotheses (the validity of which will be tested when scientists unravel the mysteries of the proto-Indian literature. However, it is now possible to talk rather the definition that Harappakaya civilization (its culture, religion traditions) should have, albeit to a lesser extent, the impact on the development of the Vedic tribes.

Language and written

Unfortunately, still not read the writing Harappan civilization, but its very existence testifies to the high level of development of this culture. To date, more than 1,000 seals found with inscriptions; In addition, the inscriptions found ia ceramics, metal objects. Researchers believe that the press might be trademarks of receipts or amulets; many of them have small openings. It can be assumed that the inscriptions were deposited not only pas printing, but also on other, more running, writing materials, such as palm leaves. The latter are easily destroyed and therefore can not survive.

Of particular interest is pahodka clay inkwells. The total number of marks on seals comes to nearly 400. They are, as the researchers found, phonetic characters, and some were ideograms. The inscriptions are relatively small but the size. Special bars were used for the image numbers. In Kalibantane was found a fragment of pottery with a part of the inscription, which is seen yavpo writing direction – to the left bezel. For decades, scientists are trying to unravel the secrets of this writing.

There were different theories. Renowned scientist V. Grozny linked Harappa written with Hittite hieroglyphics, but this attempt failed decryption. Reading labels is dependent primarily on the definition of the language in which verified and wrote to the inhabitants of the Indus civilization. Many prominent researchers (eg, T. Barrow, M. Emeneau) attribute it to a group of Dravidian languages, as evidenced in a number of linguistic data, talking about the impact on Dravidian yazgkogv vediyoky Sanskrit.

A similar conclusion reached by scientists who have studied the Harappan “texts” with the help of computers (independently the work carried out n the Soviet Finnish scientists). According to scientists, the Proto-Indian language (language Harappan “text”) may be related to the Dravidian group, with, of course, not referring to modern Dravidian languages ​​of India and pradravidiyoky language D structure which is successfully carried out dravidologami. The problem of deciphering the Harappan script would be solved if we could find a bilingual – a bilingual inscription. Based on data from archaeological raskolok that talk about close contacts Harappan urban culture Mesopotamia, one can hope that such an inscription is found.

Decline Indies cities

Thanks to new excavations could be revised view of the immutability and stagnation Harappskoi civilization. The researchers traced the internal development of Harappan culture and determined that there were several periods in the life of cities. After flourishing in many centers, a period of decline, the decline of culture. This is especially clearly seen in the examples of Mohenjo-Daro. Harappa, Kalibangana and others. In the later period of the so-called construction of Mohenjo-daro was conducted without strict plan, by this time, some large public buildings have been destroyed, and instead of them there were small buildings, disrupting the water supply.

 It fell into disrepair many buildings and Harappa. Calms down once rough trade. Changing equipment manufacturing ceramic ornament fades, reducing the quality of the painting. Among the scientists conducted a great controversy about the cause of the decline of Harappan centers. Over (Io, the most-was the popularity of the point of view that the direct cause of the fall of the Harappan centers and decline of civilization was the invasion of the Aryan tribes. However, new research has shown that a number of cities went into decline even before the appearance of any foreign tribes, due to internal causes.

Scientists have linked it with soil salinization, floods, deserts Radzhutanskoy onset, change the channel of the Indus River, and so on. Expedition hydrologists worked in (the area of ​​Mohenjo-Da-ro, concluded that far from otogo city in ancient times was the center of a tectonic shock, which led to the death of the city. Other researchers argue that the main cause of the destruction of the Dar Moheddzho were ota excitement . City flooded with water several times, and eventually the population was forced to leave it, go to another area. It is possible that a number of other cities affected by the floods.

Recently, there is another point of view about the reason for the sunset Mohen-jo-Daro: change the channel of the Indus led to a severe drought that has exhausted the city and allowed the newcomers to easily capture it. These statements relate to specific villages and towns, but do not explain why approximately XIX- XVIII centuries. BC. e.Harappkaya civilization as a whole is experiencing a period of decline. It is possible that large shifts in the Harappan society were associated with certain barbarization culture.

Ensuing due to the sharp expansion of its borders n the inclusion of the level of development of backward regions. This issue requires further study, but it is now clear that it is the inner phenomenon served as the main cause of decline Ha ragshskoy civilization and the decline of its centers.It is significant that the decline observed in the provincial areas, such as Kathiavrskom Peninsula. In Lot-Hale first signs of decline appear in the XIX c., And in XVIII – XVII centuries. violated due this major port in the main centers of the Indus, is experiencing at this time of internal crisis.

 After the so-called period of haranpskogo on Kathiavarskom peninsula is entering a new, posleharappsky period within which to some extent modified the local culture, and there is not any break in with the development. Judging from the excavations, the decline of the Harappan culture here had nothing to do with aliens, in contrast to the Indus Valley, where the last period in the life of some cities actually coincided with the penetration into these areas of foreign tribes. It is significant that in the later period Harashpe population to actively build a system of fortifications to protect the city from the invasion of foreign tribes.

 About collision tunic with newcomers tribes show traces of fires in these settlements and discoveries of human skeletons in the streets – apparently killed .in battle with the enemy. Penetrates into the Indus Valley tribes, according to the excavations, belonged to different ethnic groups. Among them were the tribes living in Balochistan, as well as the families who had a close resemblance to the tribes to play. Some groups did not differ from plsmёn harashgantsev w ethnically and lived in close proximity to haraishkzhyah centers. Quantitatively alien needle change was small.

Sometimes traces of alien tribes are traced only that one ha rappokom settlement. However, we can say that the newcomers as if completed the decline of the major Harappan centers. It is possible that some of these tribes belonged to the Indo-Aryan group, but in general the traditional conclusion that a direct connection with the decline of the Harappan civilization, the arrival of the Aryans must be present Vram radically revised, which, however, did not deny the fact of the arrival of the Indo-Aryan tribes in India.

 
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Posted by on August 5, 2015 in civilization

 

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