In the depths of Lake Baikal started the 1st group of new deep-water sensors neutrino telescope Dubai project, implemented jointly by scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences RAS and the Joint organization in Nuclear Research and many other research organizations. The group consists of sensors Dubai 192 optical modules, which are formed of garland, lowered to a depth of 1.3 kilometers and this group is the 1st group of optical modules of the future great neutrino telescope Baikal-GVD (Georgetown Volume Detector).
In the future, the telescope, scientists hope, will shed light on the mysteries of the nature of the mysterious dark matter and to answer some fundamental questions about the origin of the universe. The new neutrino telescope will have a modular structure formed by several independent units, each of which will be a plurality of vertical strings of optical modules – says Gregory Domogatskii, corresponding associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences and coordinator of the project. In the next phase of the project will be complete consistent deployment of new groups of visual sensors, which will gradually increase the working volume of the neutrino telescope.
By 2020, the telescope Baikal-GVD, a part of which there will be 10-12 functional groups and a working volume of which will be 0.5 cubic kilometers, will be comparable to the largest of the existing neutrino telescopes, telescope IceCube, which amounts to 1 cubic kilometer. In the second phase project of the telescope Baikal-GVD will adjoin other 27 groups and its working volume to increase by another 1.5 cubic kilometers. Like all existing neutrino telescopes, telescope Baikal-GVD will serve to study the flow of high-energy neutrinos, the elusive particle flow that freely penetrates any matter. These particles interact with the atoms of ordinary matter is extremely rare and these rare cases, generating flashes of light known as Cherenkov radiation, will register highly sensitive optical sensors.
Neutrino flux coming into the area of the Earth, literally full of information about our world – says Valery Rubakov, one of the scientists of the RAS, involved in this project – Research carried out by means of the telescope Baikal-GVD, will be the key to understanding the most the early stages of the universe, they will give us the opportunity to explore the intricacies of the processes of development of stars, the formation of various chemical elements and, of course, will shed light on the nature of the mysterious dark matter. The 1st attempts to construct of neutrino telescopes have been launched by scientists in the 1960s. Features underground telescopes built at that time were very limited as to present fairly the study of these particles flows required volume of not less than 1 cubic kilometer, safe from the effects of other elementary particles.
The first underwater neutrino telescope in which water acts as the working fluid and a protective screen at the same time was set at a depth of 1.2 kilometers in the waters of Lake Baikal in 1993. In 2008, the Mediterranean was created a telescope Antares, which has a working volume of 0.01 cubic kilometers. And 2 of these smaller telescopes were built later near the coast of Sicily and the island of Pylos, Greece. And now, the joint efforts of 42 teams from different universities and organizations from 12 European countries, is being built neutrino telescope KM3NeT, which will begin work in the 2016-2017 year and having a working volume of a few cubic kilometers, will be the largest neutrino telescope on earth. And the largest neutrino telescope is by far the IceCube telescope with a working volume of 1 cubic kilometer of sensors which are at a depth of 1.5-2.5 km deep in the Antarctic ice near the South Pole. This telescope operating in 2013, was the 1st instrument that registers neutrino particles generated outside the solar system.