The total solar eclipse of the twentieth March on 20,2015 – a 61st eclipse of Saros one hundred and twentieth. The area gets the best of its visibility in the polar and middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Reaches maximum eclipse at coordinates 64.4 ° North latitude, 6.6 ° west longitude, lasts a maximum of 2 minutes 47 seconds, and the width of the Moon’s shadow on the Earth’s surface is 463 kilometers.
At the time and point of maximum eclipse of the sun direction of 135 °, and the height of the sun above the horizon is 18 °. Dynamic world time at the moment of greatest eclipse: 9:46:47 amendment dynamic time: 69 seconds.
The axis of the shadow of the Earth passes between the center and the north pole, the minimum distance from the center of the Earth to the Moon’s shadow cone axis is 6030 kilometers. Thus, Gamma eclipses is 0.9454, and the maximum pulse reaches 1.0445. Number lunar month: 188 (188 synodic months passed with the accepted date for the zero point on January 6, 2000). The total solar eclipse, total eclipse – solar eclipse in which the Moon’s shadow cone intersects the Earth’s surface the Moon is close enough to Earth to completely cover the Sun. The average length of the moon’s shadow is 373320 km, and the distance from the Earth to the Moon March 20, 2015 is 357,415 km. In this case, the apparent diameter of the Moon in 1.0445 times more apparent diameters of the solar disk. At full eclipse visible solar corona, the stars and planets that are close to the sun.
Moment and the point of greatest eclipse the moment of greatest eclipse – this event is characterized by a minimum during the eclipse distance between the center of the Earth and the Moon’s shadow cone axis. The point of greatest eclipse – a place on the Earth’s surface, which at the time of greatest eclipse phase of the eclipse maximum. For a total solar eclipse moment of greatest eclipse essentially coincides with the moment of maximum phase and the longest duration of the eclipse.
Amendment dynamic time brings the greatest error in the calculation of the parameters of eclipses. This amendment describes the fluctuations of the Earth’s rotation caused primarily by the tidal influence of the moon. The resulting fluctuations of the time shift, called delta, calculated as follows: on the date prior to 1950 based on the identification and approximation of data available historical sources, since 1950. Currently available for regular, reliable measurement values, data for the future is obtained by extrapolating the measured values to date, taking into account the long-term effects of tidal effects.
Sun and Moon – the only celestial body on the terrestrial firmament, which are visible to the naked eye sizes. Nature has given us a remarkable correspondence of the visible solar and lunar disk. Sun farther from Earth than the Moon, about 390 times, but its linear diameter (1,392,000 km) is almost 400 times the diameter of the Moon (3476 km), so see them wheels are about the same! With this combination of size in the world, there is a full solar eclipse. Be the diameter of the Moon is somewhat less, or the distance to the moon was bigger, and humans will never be able to see an amazing sight when in broad daylight comes almost complete darkness. If the diameter of the moon would be in two or more times greater, the total eclipses would occur more frequently, but then disappeared from view earthlings would majestic crown of the sun, flashing during a total solar eclipse. Amazing coincidence apparent diameters of the Sun and the Moon, though, leads to the fact that the total eclipse can be seen only in a narrow band on the surface of the earth, but none of the planets of the solar system can no longer see the unique spectacle – a total solar eclipse visible from the crown of the sun completely. Geometrically solar eclipses occur easily. Sunlit moon casts a shadow cone space of convergent and divergent cone surrounding penumbra. When these cones intersect the earth’s surface, the Moon’s shadow and penumbra fall on it, and in the world there is a full and partial solar eclipse. Solar eclipses are possible only during a new moon. But the plane of the Moon’s orbit is inclined to the ecliptic plane at 5,2 °, and the diameter of the sun and moon disks close to 0,5 °. Therefore, the new moon the Moon passes above or below the sun, and eclipses can occur only near the nodes of the lunar orbit. The nodes of the lunar orbit are on the line Earth-Sun once every six months, so eclipses occur with semi-annual intervals. Some of the recommendations to the observations of the solar eclipse
Before proceeding to the observations must firmly remember that the eclipse is partial or phases of the eclipse look at the sun without eye protection dark filters is strictly prohibited! This warning applies especially to the observations of the Sun in optical instruments, as it will cause an instant neglect and incurable eye damage. Therefore, the front of the lens (lens) of an optical instrument, binoculars, telescopes, telescope) it is necessary to strengthen the dark filter of sufficient density to the eye do not feel irritation sunlight. Even with the phase of the solar eclipse of 0.9, t. E. When the moon covered 90% of the apparent diameter of the Sun, remains open 0,125 one-eighth of the solar disk, and sunlight loosened only 8-10 times, even dangerous to view, especially since the opening portion is unimpaired surface brightness.
To fix the timings suitable any mechanical or electronic wristwatch with a second hand (in figures) or stopwatch. The clock must be verified twice by radio signals, exact time or hour of television, once before the partial eclipse, and the second time after it. The difference of the clock from the moment it is recorded in the logbook.
To photograph the eclipse is possible, attach the camera to the prime focus of the telescope, IE removes from the telescope eyepiece and adapt itself in its place the camera without a lens. As this will look like the sun at different focal length of the lens of the telescope shown. To achieve focus is desirable to use SLR cameras. Rough is pointing the telescope at the sun with the camera easy to implement on the shadow of the telescope. One observer holds for the eyepiece end of the telescope white screen a piece of cardboard, covered with a white paper, and the second turn the telescope tube and watching his shadow on the screen. When the telescope is pointed at the sun, the shadow on the screen will be the smallest and symmetrical. After that, for a more precise guidance seeker used previously covered with a dark filter. To get the best shots, you need to conduct a test photographing the sun for a few days before the eclipse, to determine the optimal exposure shooting. Shutter speed and aperture for your camera or digital camera can also be defined on the table for the different sensitivity films, composed especially for the filming of a total solar eclipse.