The epidemic can be stopped. War – to prevent the efforts of diplomats. Asteroid – mislead charge. But to block the volcano’s throat, and even this, beside which even Vesuvius looks like some Mannequin Pis against the background of the fountain Friendship of Peoples, is unlikely. According to scientists, the explosion of the super volcano awaits us in the near future.
This mountain people get round. They knew that inside it lives a powerful evil spirit. He sleeps most of the time, but when wakes up, then lit his big pipe, and from the roof of his home smoke rises into the sky column. Who inhale the smoke, the sick and die in terrible agony. And when the owner of the mountain in a dream flips from side to side, shaking the whole earth.
Recently demon slept very restless, tremors were repeated more often. This area left and the birds and the beasts. And then sleep woke up …
Scientists reconstruct the catastrophic eruption of super volcano in the Lake Toba in Sumatra that occurred 73,000 years ago. After a terrible explosion, which was heard the roar of thousands of kilometers away from the earth at supersonic speed burst column of hot gas and ash, which almost instantly reached the edge of the stratosphere – the mark of 50 kilometers! Soared up the wreckage exploded volcano dome wall of fire and magma. When it all collapsed back into the bowels of the earth, in the air up giant glowing ash cloud. They moved at a speed of almost 400 kilometers per hour, melting on his way stones and burning all living things. Super volcano threw nearly three thousand cubic kilometers of ash. This is enough to cover the entire territory layer of lava. At the explosion site was formed caldera area of 1775 square kilometers. In this caldera could fit two of Moscow.
Released into the atmosphere ashes covered the sun for six months. On the planet began nuclear winter. The average temperature dropped to 15 degrees. In addition, with the clouds of dust and ash into the atmosphere then was thrown to three billion tons of sulfur dioxide. As a result, ruining vegetation sulfur rains poured on the ground for six years. Killed five out of every six inhabited the Earth creatures. The number of our primitive ancestors fell to 5-10 thousand.
Some scholars argue that this eruption in evolutionary terms scum of the Earth 2 million years ago. However, the ancient catastrophe had positive consequences. According to one hypothesis, megaizverzhenie helped Cro-Magnon, with which we, in fact, and we are in the fight against their direct competitors Neanderthals. Before the crash dominance physically stronger and coating protects from the cold dense coat of Neanderthals was undeniable. Their number exceeds the number of Cro-Magnon several times. But after the explosion occurred Toba little ice age, when it is no muscle, no hair is not saved from starvation and terrible cold. And build a fire and build traps mammoths and other large animals Neanderthals did not know how. So they had to give way to more reasonable Cro-Magnons, and then completely disappear from the face of the earth. However, some researchers believe that this branch of the humanoid still survives to this day in the name of mythical Bigfoot. But it is – a special subject.
Which usually represents a person when he hears the word super volcano? Most likely, a huge fire-breathing mountain abutting top in the heavens. But in fact super volcanoes – create secretive and deceitful. They hide under the surface of our planet. This giant underground cavity filled with boiling magma. Magma due to high temperature and high pressure on certain areas of the depths suitable for the planet’s surface is sufficiently close (sometimes only a few kilometers). With further increase in pressure in this gigantic reservoir surface of the earth begins to extrude up. It turns out a kind of cork in the bottle of champagne. This process is accompanied by the formation of numerous faults and fissures through which the hot gases, magma boiling products and subsurface spills out. After that, the pressure is reduced, and a giant tube of hundreds of kilometers without under a fulcrum, except at the bottom of the boiling magma, sinking into it again, and again melted by squeezing the edges of the magma, which subsequently forms a kind of parapet or shaft . The resulting irregular oval with a deflection-cup into the ground (caldera) radius of hundreds of kilometers will be visible specialists only after careful study of satellite images or aerial photographs from space, and then scan the bowels. A normal eye sees here a vast picturesque valley, often with a lake in the middle of it.
The entire world there is about 20 super volcano. The largest of them – Long Valley (California), Toba (Sumatra), Tuapa (New Zealand), Yellowstone (Wyoming). Still there super volcanoes in Kamchatka, in Italy, near the city of Naples in a place called Flegeriyskie Fields under the islands of the Aegean Sea, near the island of Kos called. According to the latest research can affirmatively say that there are other super volcanoes that are in the areas under the Central America, the Andes (Peru), the Philippines, Japan, Indonesia. They behave differently. Some quietly sleeping, nothing revealing their presence, other fountains spewing geysers, hot steam and smoke (as in Kamchatka or in Iceland). But their behavior with absolute certainty can predict neither volcanologist. Super volcano could doze off hundreds of thousands of years, and then suddenly wake up and shake the earth catastrophic eruption.
Toba eruption is described earlier in this article, it is not the largest of the super volcano. The biggest of all known in the US, in the national park Yellowstone (translated to English – yellow stone), known for its geysers and hot springs. Super volcano caldera that has a length of 72 km, a width of 55 kilometers. It was established that the magma reservoir is located very close to the surface of the caldera, at a depth of 8 kilometers. This super volcano could erupt over 2.5 thousand cubic kilometers of volcanic material. For comparison, during the most abundant of the known eruptions (1815) Tambora volcano (Sumbawa Island, Indonesia) threw about 150 cubic kilometers of such a substance, and the famous Krakatau (near the island of Java), destroyed in 1883, 36 thousand people and rattle at the same time so that it could be heard in every corner of the planet – only 18 cubic kilometers.
Examining the volcanic rocks left over from past eruptions, scientists of the Geological Society of America came to the conclusion that the activity of the Yellowstone super volcano is cyclical: it has already erupted 2 million years ago, 1.3 million years ago, and finally, 630 thousand years ago. It is easy to calculate that at this time the frequency of another explosion has already come. Signs of impending cataclysm there. Near the old caldera, near the Three Sisters (an extinct volcano), was found a sharp rise in the soil: the four years of its vspuchilis 178 centimeters. At the same time in the previous decade it has risen by only 10 centimeters, which is actually quite a lot, too. Recently, American volcanologists found that magma flows beneath Yellowstone up so that they are at a depth of 480 meters.
In 1999, the English geologist Professor McGuire prepared for the UK government’s special report, in which he stated that, according to his calculations, Yellowstone has to explode in 2074. But some volcanologists believe that it can happen much earlier.
As it happens, clearly shown in the Hollywood blockbuster 2012. Burst explosion comparable with the explosion of thousands of nuclear bombs. The ground part of the super-fail into the funnel and forms on the surface of a huge hole the size of 55-65 kilometers in diameter. In the sky fly over 1 thousand cubic kilometers of magma. This is enough to cover most of North America, already destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami, a layer of ash of different thicknesses: 30 inches around and less than a millimeter to 3 thousands of kilometers away. Furthermore, the darkest projected temperature in the world drop to 21 degrees, and the visibility for several years would be within 30 inches. It will be a completely different life, similar to the conditions on the nuclear winter. In addition, the eruption of Yellowstone becomes a detonator, waking other super volcanoes. And on Earth comes the apocalypse!
Scientists and politicians are trying to reassure the public, saying that in the next 1-2 million years super izverzhenie Earth is not threatened. Meanwhile, from the Yellowstone Park bison herd and running deer.