The origin of man today is a lot of debate, but a consensus scientists did not come. One thing is certain: the man appeared on this planet for a long time and passed in its development a big way. Considered to be the cradle of mankind Africa, because it is there found the remains of Australopithecus age of 2.3 million years.
If we talk about Homo sapiens, he started to learn Western and Central Europe 42-45 thousand years ago.
Perhaps migration homo sapiens from Africa to Central Europe began through East. At least, the people who settled in Eastern Europe, not later than in other parts of the European continent.
It is possible that the first settlements of the ancestors of modern man emerged on the territory of present-day Russia, in its very center – the Voronezh region.
Kostenki village, located 40 kilometers from Voronezh, already in 1879, became famous there discovered prehistoric man. Now there are about 60 settlements related to the huge time span – they existed in the period from 45 to 15 thousand years ago and belonged to various ancient cultures. Workers Museum Kostenki, created in 1991, in collaboration with scientists from the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences conduct research at sites of the village. Recently, particular interests archaeological cause their lower layers. After all, according to the results obtained from the American lab in 2002, the age of the lower cultural layer Kostenok could increase to 50 thousand years.
Excavations carried out in other areas of the Voronezh region, and one of archaeologists working in the area of Don lucky: on the banks of the river were found stone tools and other man-made objects, covered with a layer of volcanic ash. Volcanoes in the center of Russia? Another mystery of nature … Radioisotope analysis showed that ash 40 thousand years, and it is possible to refine the age of the finds under them. A radiocarbon and studies have shown that the current territory of the Voronezh region was inhabited by 42-45 thousand years ago.
For the same period – late upper Palaeolithic – according to archaeologists, and indicates the nature of the finds in Kostenki. This, for example, made of bone and stone. Interestingly, some tools made of stone, which can only be found at a great distance from the parking lots. In addition, during the excavations found products made from shells from the Black Sea. These are very important details that can tell us about human migration routes along the coasts, and perhaps even on the movement on the seas and the rivers themselves. However, archaeologists have not yet been found on the territory of the ancient sites of human remains, but the fact that one of the first settlements of our ancestors was in Eastern Europe, no longer in doubt.
In the Don were found and the ancient court. The vast majority of the finds made by accident, the locals or employees River Shipping Company. One of the ancient canoes was discovered in 1992 near the village of snatching specialists Liskinskogo technical area shipping company during the cleaning of the fairway. The finding reported by local historians Peter Markovic Tereshchenko. He went to the bank and saw the discovery, immediately realized that this ancient canoe – a real treasure. Tereshchenko called the Ostrogozhsky museum, whose employees have organized an expedition to rescue and save a rarity.
The museum staff confirmed the authenticity and antiquity of a boat. But keep it in the open air without wood preservation was impossible. Museum professionals, headed by the director of LI Muscovy, not having the financial ability to handle the findings immediately did everything to save a unique monument of history. Thanks to their efforts, the canoe was transported by water in the river Quiet Pine for safekeeping until the moment when it will be possible to carry out conservation. The boat was placed in a metal pipe and flooded the city Ostrogozhsk.
The author first heard about Uryvskaya canoe in summer 1994, when he went to his native village – in the city of Voronezh region Ostrogozhsk. I remembered a similar canoe found in the Don River near the village of Shchuchye Liskinsky district in 1954 and in the exposition of the Historical Museum in Moscow.
Uryvskaya canoe was made of oak deck with a diameter of about 110 cm. He, like others found the ancient court, hollowed from a single log. As for the dating of the finds, after investigation and geological conditions of a boat burial in 1954, scientists have suggested that it was made at the end of III – beginning of II millennium BC. However, this does not exclude the possibility of making other canoes found in previous archaeological era.
At this point in the Upper and Middle Don found six ancient vessels. These canoes – the oldest historical monument. It is impossible not to notice that many interesting archaeological finds are concentrated in the area of the river Don. The ancient Persians and Scythians word dan means water. It is thanks to the Scythian and Sarmatian spread in South-Eastern Europe, and so became known as the river with the most densely populated shores.
If you look at the map, it will be understood that Don is located in the heart of Eastern Europe. The length of the river 1870 km and the area of its basin 422,000 square kilometers inspire confidence that the ancient canoe – not the last archaeological find in this vast region.
Many secrets storedDon Riverand its banks. And how many historical mysteries hidden in the European part of Russia! It is hoped that our vast territory to attract the attention of researchers of antiquity, and May soon be extended with new Russian museums exhibits.