Other ancient civilization -Sumer, with its city-states of Ur,Babylon and other – has existed since the end of IV to the beginning of II millennium BC. in Mesopotamia, in the south of present-day Iraq.
The most ancient cities of India- Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, date back to the IV-III millennium BC., the famous Petra- a city carved into the rocks of South Jordan- the end of the II millennium BC.
And the city is considered the oldest biblical Jericho, inhabited, according to the excavations from IX millennium BC.
It turns out that the age of the majority of the most ancient cities in the world, known to date, no more than 5-6 thousand years.
But is it?
In western India in the far land juts Gulf of Cam bay. In January 2002, the study of the bottom of the bay, 30 miles from the city ofSurat, at a depth of about 40 meters on the screens began to emerge sonar images of large objects square and rectangular shapes. Further studies were carried out with the use of deep-sea dredges.
What raised the surface of her bucket, created a sensation among archaeologists around the world.
One of them was Michael Cremo, an American researcher of the history of archeology of theCaliforniadepartment of Bhaktivedanta Institute. Previously, the Institute published a book by Michael Cremo and Richard Thompson’s Forbidden Archaeology: unknown history of mankind.
This book provides, in particular, it is enough convincing evidence that people with modern anatomical structure existed at the same time and in conjunction with other primates for tens of millions of years. In this case, they could, for example, to hunt dinosaurs and portray them from life on the Ica stones, in the sculptural compositions of Acambaro and rock carvings in the mountain valleys of Kazakhstan.
But that said Cremo on the findings extracted from the bottom of the Gulf of Cambay:
Over the past few months bucket dredger raised to the surface fossilized human bones, pieces of treated wood, stone tools, shards of pottery and many other items, clearly showing that there is what is now the bottom of the bay, in the old days was the land and her people lived. After that spent extra bottom and found the new contours of regular geometric shape, which are, the ruins of ancient sunken buildings.
Researchers believe that the buildings stood on the bank of the river, which once flowed on the Indian subcontinent, and fell into the sea. Radio-carbon analysis showed: age finds 9,500 years!
As for the former river, on which stood the sunken city, the Rig Veda, a monument of Indian literature, dating from the 1700-1100 period. BC. Oe. Mentioned broad and deep river Saraswati, which originates in the Himalayas, which runs through the entire north-eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, and empties into the Arabian Sea. It also describes the existence in ancient India, city-states and the events that took place in them for at least 9,500 years ago.
But Sara swati River in India is not. So, we decided to uchenye- realists, what is written in the Rig Veda – or fantasy, or does not refer to India, and to some other places, where there is such a river.
However, in the late twentieth century. Indian archaeologists have provided pictures of the Indian subcontinent made by American satellite Landsat. In the pictures clearly shows the wide track once existing river begins in the Himalayas and flows in the same Gulf of Cambay, the bottom of which lie the ruins of the newly opened city. Later, archaeologists found on the former banks of the former river several hundred places in ancient times, people lived.
In one of the ancient manuscripts written in Sanskrit, tells of a large lake, located in the north of India, in the Kashmir valley. In fact, no lake there. But recent geological studies have shown that before the lake is really there, to him on the south side right up moving low ridge. Then something happened, the ridge that goes, and all the water drained out of the lake. It happened at least … 40 thousand years ago!
But since this lake is written in an ancient manuscript, which means that it has seen someone who 40,000 years ago knew how to write, or at least talk.
Here are found the ruins of cities that have existed for 10 and 11 thousand years ago. Archaeologists are exploring them in the desert, but when the city was built around the extended fertile plains.
A great puzzle for scientists is located in the city of Turkey Chatalhyuk. Archaeologists dig deeper, the more ancient stone foundations they find. And their age, as well as household items lying around, is 9-10 thousand years.
Surprises presented excavations of Jericho, which lies on the west bank of the Jordan River, 22 kilometers north-west of Jerusalem. Scientists have found that people lived here from 9000 to 1850 BC. e. The foundation of the city area of about 5 hectares consisted of mud brick building, he was surrounded by a wall 3 meters high with a tower, towering more than 8 meters.
And in May 2001, a group of Polish archaeologists led by Ryszard Mazurovskii, professor at the Institute of Archaeology of Warsaw University, opened in Syria, at the foot of the Taurus Mountains, the city of Tell Quaramel with a round watchtower age not less than 10 thousand years. It was built of stones, fastened with river silt, had a diameter of 7.5 meters, the wall thickness of 2 meters and its height is more than 9 meters. To date, it is the oldest known science of stone structures. According to researchers, the tower served people for more than 5 thousand years.
One year after the beginning of the excavations revealed the ruins of 25 round houses built in the second half of the IX millennium BC. e. of the blocks, made from the dried river mud and set on stone foundations. In every house there was a sewerage system: in the adobe floor grooves were made, ending with holes in the walls for the discharge of liquid wastes.
Found that people continuously lived in this city, at least, from IX to VIII millennium BC. e. In the city and found all sorts of utensils, vessels, carved from stone, stone arrowheads, and whetstones for sharpening them, decorated with geometric motifs and animal prints. Archaeologists have found and carved stone figure of a very realistic image of a snake.
Until now it was thought that only since the VIII millennium BC, or in the era of so-called preceramic Neolithic, it is in the Middle East began to form the world’s first agricultural civilizations began the domestication of animals. But this concept does not fit the discoveries made in India, at the bottom of the Gulf of Cambay, in Tel Kvaramele, Chatalhyuke and Jericho.
But the city begin to build when it need arises. Construction – a complex and hard work for its implementation need not random people, and professionals with the knowledge of at least the basics of arithmetic and geometry, with the development of creative imagination, have abstract thinking. In addition to the city originated, requires a certain level of social organization, the presence of the core infrastructure. And again, the citizens need to feed, water and clothing. But all this can provide only a well-developed civilization.
According to the prevailing views, then there was a time of transition from the late Paleolithic to the early Mesolithic: roving gatherers, hunters with stone and bone tools, and later – with bows and arrows, and then the dogs … Could these people to build a city? And why they would they need?
So who built these homes to the sewage system and arranged them along the streets that formed the city for millennia ahead in the activity of the Egyptians and the Sumerians, not to mention the Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans?
… There was an island which lay before the strait which you call the Pillars of Hercules. He was called Atlantis and was more than Libya and Asia put together … The power of the kings of the union of the island extended to many other islands and on the part of the opposite continent, and on this side of the strait – up to Egypt and Tirrenia. But when 9000 years ago happened unprecedented earthquake and floods, Atlantis disappeared in one awful night, lost in the abyss…