Sword of Monomakh

29 Jul

MonomakhMany have heard the famous nick name Vladimir- Monomakh, but few people know why it was called the prince.

In 1043 his grandfather Yaroslav the Wise sent his son Vladimir in the military campaign against Byzantium. Russian boats came to Constantinople, where they were met by a fleet of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomakh. Boil battle. Armed kamnemetnymi machines and Greek fire ships Byzantines began to restrict the Ruthenians. And if the past and had a chance to take revenge, it is only as long as the sea has not burst storm.

Greek trireme withstood the fury of the elements. Russian boats – no. Byzantine monk and philosopher Michael Psellos later wrote: Some ships reared wave covered immediately, while others dragged a long time in the sea and then thrown on the rocks and steep bank. Rook Vladimir died, the prince himself narrowly escaped by climbing aboard the governors Ivan Tvorimiricha.

Prostrate son Yaroslav with the remnants of squads on a handful of survivor’s rooks returned toKiev, on the way to repel the attack triremes sent after Constantine Monomakh. A six thousand survivors of the Russian soldiers who do not have enough space on the ships were captured, and, according to the description Psellos Byzantines … then staged a true barbarians bleeding, it seemed as if poured out rivers of blood flow colored sea. Three years later, the Byzantine Empire, which is interested in cooperation withRussia, agreed to make peace.Alliancecemented by marriage, marrying another son Yaroslav, Vsevolod, the daughter of Emperor Constantine. And in 1053 they had a son, Vladimir, who became at the same time as a descendant of Rurik Russian and Byzantine Monomakh 

WhenRussiafirst invaded Cumans, Vladimir Monomakh was eight years old. His father, Prince Vsevolod, made a campaign to stop the foreigners, but suffered a crushing defeat. Since then, the nomads become a real disaster for the Old Russian state. Their hordes came a sudden wave of deadly: looted and burned villages, and sometimes whole cities, and just as quickly departed, hijacking the steppe many prisoners. Rusyches how could defended their land, but there were no more victories than defeats. The situation was complicated by the fact that some of the princes during quarrels often called Polovtsian allies, thereby contributing to the ruin of the Russian lands. Throughout his life, Vsevolod, being the ruler of Kievan Rus, led the struggle with the nomads. In 1093, he died. Continue his work ought to son – Vladimir Monomakh.

But he decided otherwise.Russiashould make peace with the nomads, and not to fight. Especially Cumans themselves want peace. Perhaps, it would have happened, sit on the throne of his father Monomakh. But things turned out differently:Vladimir decided to voluntarily give the Kievan throne to his cousin Sviatopolk, considering the fact that more of this right.

Sviatopolk eager for war. This led to a new multi-year massacre with Cumans, in which the Russian princes suffered a lot of losses (more we talked about it in №36, 2012).

In 1097 the Russian princes to realize that they should stop infighting and all its power to focus on the nomads. They gathered in Lyubech and decided from now on everyone will be keeping his paternal.

Prior to this, the distribution of principalities in Russia occurred in order of seniority: the largest battered the oldest of Rurik, and so on down the line. Of course, not everyone is happy with the prince remained received an allotment sword and tried to restore justice. After Lyubech congress land, except Kiev, were secured immediately after birth and to pass from father to son and from brother to brother, on the one hand, Russia crushed into feudal holdings, on the other – has significantly reduced the territorial disputes of the princes and, accordingly, the number of reasons for civil wars.

Finally reconciled princes could unite and fight back foreigners. But as soon as the congress ended, there was a new conflict: Sviatopolk blinded one of the princes – Cornflower, believing libel that he was going to seize power. InRussiais about ready to break new strife. Then intervened Vladimir Monomakh.

There have been no Russian soils at any of our grandfathers, under our fathers such evil! Exclaimed Monomakh, learning about the act Svjatopolka, and immediately sent a message to the princes: – If you do not fix that, an even greater evil will arise among us, and begin to stab his brother, and our land will be lost, and Cumans will come and take it.

ByVladimirjoined by several princes, and they went together to punish Svjatopolka. He tried to explain: sent messengers with a message that blindness Cornflower not his fault, but the accuser – Volyn Prince Davyd Igorevich. To which he replied:

Not in the city Davydova captured and blinded Cornflower, but in yours.

When combined armies led by Monomakh came toKiev, Sviatopolk tried to escape from the city, but the people ofKiev, he was detained. They hoped for a good heart andVladimirsent him to negotiate his stepmother – the widow of Vsevolod. That became tearfully ask stepson not to destroy cousin. Pleas Princess moved to pity Monomakh, he agreed to forgive Svjatopolka, but only if he promises to get even with the accuser. Sviatopolk agreed, and concluding with his brother world, moved with a team against Davyd Igorevich. Volynia was forced to flee to Poland.

In 1103, Vladimir and Sviatopolk gathered in council in Dolobsk. They decided it was time to join the army of the Russian princes and all Ratiu go to the Polovtsian steppe.

Messengers were sent with the message: Go on Polovtsian, shall be either alive or dead. The call of Vladimir and Svjatopolka responded many princes.

Having learned that they are united Russian army, Cumans assembled a council of war. Their khan Urusoba offered his countrymen:

Let’s sue for peace withRussia. Hard they will fight with us, because we have done a lot of evil Russian land.

Are you afraid of Russia, but we are not afraid! Smashing of these, go to their own land, and possess their cities!

A pitched battle took place April 4, 1103 on theDniepernear the place Suten. Polovtsi put all their strength and are poised for battle. When Russian troops appeared, the nomads have realized that underestimated the size of the army was brought forward against them.

Seeing as they rushed to the squad, Cumans trembled and began to retreat in panic. But most of them fell by the sword of pursuers, including 20 noble Khans. It was the biggest defeat of the Polovtsian since like 42 years ago for the first time their hordes invadedRussia. Captured Polovtsian Khan Beldyuz offer any ransom, only he would have saved lives, but Monomakh and it has not spared, saying:

You repeatedly klyavshis never promises are not kept, but always attacking, people captured and killed.

After the defeat in 1103 Cumans have repeatedly attempted to in vade Russia, and every time against them rising combined armies. As a result, the Polovtsian rulers resigned and permanently cease raids on Russian land.

In 1113 he died from illness Prince Sviatopolk. Kiyani, consultation, decided that it was the most worthy of Monomakh occupy the Russian throne. ButVladimir, received an invitation to sit on the throne of his father refused. He believed that Svyatoslavich – David and Oleg – seniority is more to this operation. However, the people of Kiev did not want to see their prince anyone but Vladimir Monomakh.

In the city of rebellion broke out. First of all the people of the pogrom homes of those who supported the candidacy Svyatoslavich, including home city tysyatskogo Putyata. Under this brand has got and the local Jews, with whom the people of Kiev has long been brewing conflict.

Kiev tip again sent a message to Vladimir, saying that if he does not come immediately, riots destroyed the city. Hearing this, the Monomakh urgently hit the road. Especially Svyatoslavichy were not against to give him the throne.Vladimir barely arrived toKiev, the rebellion subsided. 

Yet even ethnic strife arrival of the new Prince could not repay. Kiyani required immediately resolving the issue of the situation in Kiev Jews who at Svyatopolk had great freedom and power, because of what ruined many Russian merchants and artisans. Catching up on usury, they are oppressed debtors immoderate growth. Also, people blamed the Jews that they deceive many in their faith and settled in homes between Christians, something that had not happened.Vladimirsaid he did not dare to make such decisions on their own, and called for the princes and the most distinguished people ofKievto the council. As a result, Russian Truth added the first law of the new ruler – Charter of rezah limiting inRussiausury. In addition, as reported Ioakimovskaya Chronicle, on the same board was passed yet and the verdict: Now the whole of the Russian land of the Jews, with all their possessions to send and continue not to allow, as if secretly enter, willingly rob and kill them. It was the first manifestation of anti-Semitism, officially registered in the Russian land.

Prince ruled the state for 12 years.

He was famous not only as a wise ruler, greatly strengthened the position of Kievan Rus, but also as an educator. He died of natural causes on 73-year life in 1125, leaving behind the famous Sermon Vladimir Monomakh

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Posted by on July 29, 2014 in Historical, Mysterious


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