Local guides are fond of saying: He, who, having been in Egypt, had not visited Luxor, and did not see the most important thing. It was here in the XXI-XV centuries BC. e. stretched the grand capital of the ancient Egyptian kingdom, which the Egyptians themselves called Uaset and Greeks – more common in the West, the name of Thebes. Perhaps nowhere else in Egypt there is no focus monumental religious buildings, grand palaces and monuments of the Middle Kingdom.
The ancient capital was located approximately at the same place as the modern Luxor- on both banks of theNile. Great Neil shared ancient The be son the city of the living and the city of the dead (West). In the east, the majestic temples and palaces, beautiful gardens in bloom, ponds and pools give shade in the midday heat. To the west stretches a vast necropolis surrounded by an amphitheater of rocks. Giant statue of Amenhotep III -Colossi of Memnon – rises on the border of green fields and barren sands of the desert, guarding the way to the city of the dead and cautioning travelers from impure thoughts.
Here, in the Valley of the Dead, at the foot of the cliffs of Deir el-Bahri, is an ancient funerary temple of Queen Hatsheput, revered by his subjects as a daughter of the god Amun.
This temple complex, designed by architect named Senmut, worn in ancient name Jeseru Jeseru – sacred of sacred – and built the seventh (1482 BC. E.) To sixteen (1473 BC. E.) Year of the reign of Queen. Despite the fact that his style building largely repeats located near the temple of Amenhotep, a majestic colonnade and the overall grandeur of buildings are unlikely to be something comparable.
The temple complex consists of huge terraces, decorated with white limestone portico columns. Terraces separated by massive ramps, leading upstairs to the sanctuary of the temple. The road to the temple is so long that tourists are cruising special trolley. According to historians, this temple was unique in many ways at the time, as almost a thousand years ahead of architectural principles that have been applied in the construction of the famous Parthenon in Athens.
How unusual was built by Hatshepsut temple complex, just as were the unusual and the queen herself. The era of her reign (according to recent data, 1490-1468 or 1479-1458 years BC. E.) – The brightest page in the history of the Middle Kingdom.
Compared with periods of power other female pharaohs, Hatshepsut’s reign was much longer and prosperous. After completing the liberation and unification of Egypt after the invasion of nomadic Hyksos at the beginning of his reign, she began a long period of peaceful development of the state, to restore the interrupted during the occupation of trade relations with other countries and attracted enormous wealth inEgypt.
Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmes. During the life of his father, she became a high priestess of the god Amun, which gave her the right to be called later the daughter of Amon. She was married to her brother Thutmose II son of Thutmose I and his second wife Mutnofret, an ambitious Hatshepsut opened his way to the royal authority.
In just a few years of marriage, Hatshepsut was able to concentrate the levers of power in their hands. To a large extent this contributed to the fact that she favored the priests and higher commanders: Come through the maternal line granddaughter of the founder of the New Kingdom pharaoh Ahmose I, Hatshepsut in their eyes was a legitimate ruler than her husband.
The inscription on the mummy of Tuthmosis II reports that he died from some skin disease just three years after his accession to the throne. Whether the death was natural or Pharaoh is a hand supporter of his wife, of the priests (all times kept secrets of making all sorts of insidious poisons) – history is silent…
Hatshepsut became regent for small Thutmose III – the son of her husband and one of his concubines. But power-hungry daughter of the gods is not going to wait for the majority stepson to give him the throne. After a while Thutmose III was officially removed from power, and the procession of the priests of the god Amun in Karnak Temple, bore the heavy barge with a statue of the god, knelt at the feet of Hatshepsut that marked the transfer of her royal title.
Hatshepsut had to overcome many obstacles – because the woman on the throne was nonsense for the population ofEgyptat that time. Before it always persistently loomed the threat of rebellion, especially when her stepson Thutmose III finally come of age. However, the skillful use of opportunities for promoting and keen political instincts always rescued her.
In order to overcome the fears and prejudices of the common people about women’s reign, it was called not a queen, and king. Even most of Hatshepsut sculptures depict her dressed in traditional clothing rulers of men: in a headdress huts with uraeus a stylized image of a cobra goddess Wadjet and invoice beard.
Of course, the man of Hatshepsut was not trying to impersonate (beard she wore only during official ceremonies – and even then not always). Underline manhood was rather symbolic, religious in nature. The inscriptions on the walls of the temple of Queen continued to call him the most beautiful of women. A number of statues of Hatshepsut show it in a woman’s appearance.
With the tools of monumental propaganda it is implemented in the minds of his subjects and idea: it was her Pharaoh Thutmose I was preparing as his successor. In her temple are written the words on behalf of the god Amun, I will make sure that you, Hatshepsut, will become the first of all living beings, you are exalted on a par with the kings of Upper and Lower Egypt, as your father Amon very loves you for being faithful to him.
Although her reign was largely peaceful, Hatshepsut was able to maintain its credibility ruler of the great powers, organized an expedition to the land of Punt in present-day Somalia). Through this expedition treasury of Egypt have substantially increased their holdings of ivory, spices, gold, perfumes, and other valuable things while.
Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builders of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. When it was created hundreds of beautiful buildings, both in the Upper and Lower Egypt: the temple at Deir el-Bahri, Red sanctuary for ceremonial rook god Amon and the giant obelisks atKarnak, the sanctuary of the goddess Mut, and much more.
Perhaps that was built during the reign of Hatshepsut, was grander than any of its predecessors. Later pharaohs ruled tried to claim that some of its projects actually belong to them, and this was, in fact, the highest score.
In general, Hatshepsut committed such acts, which could not boast of any female ruler – either before or after it. Even if there were those who reign of Hatshepsut had no taste (at least at the time of detachment from the power of Thutmose III), its greatness extends through the centuries.
Building a fabulous temple at Deir el-Bahri was the apotheosis of the reign of Hatshepsut. Today, with its upper terrace offers an impressive panorama of the desert and the suburbs of Luxor. There, into the distance, eyes fixed and stone statues of Hatshepsut. And it seems that from the lips of the queen, frozen in a half smile, is about to pluck the words of an ancient text: Behold, my heart is torn back and forth, thinking, what will people say, the ones that will see the monuments, hast made me … Do not say that it bragging, but say, How like it on her, her Majesty Hatshepsut as worthy of her father, the god Amun! ‘