Our last story about the rulers of Russia became the founder of the first Russian state Prince Rurik – called the Vikings because of the sea. He died in 879. But as his heir while Igor was still an infant, before the death of the Grand Duke elected successor of his brother Oleg and instructed him to rule the earth until the rightful ruler grows up.
As head of Russia, Oleg did not sit idly by, and immediately set to the continuation of the predecessor – the union of tribes and expanding frontiers. Barely three years after the death of Rurik, as Prince Oleg gathered a mighty army, and took with him a little Igor, went to war patrol.
First he went toSmolensk, captured him and put him there to rule his own man. Then just visited Ljubech. Then let their boats down the Dnieper and came toKiev. But there it was a surprise.
As it turned out, the city is ruled by the Vikings – brothers Askold and Dir. Moreover, they used consisted of one squad with Oleg and just as he came toRussiatogether with Rurik. Askold and Dir were noble warriors who take time off once in a Rurik march onConstantinople. He let them go, giving the squad. When moving along the Dnieper, the brothers saw a towering hillKiev, they asked residents: Whose is this town?. They replied: There were three brothers – Kiy, Scheck and Horeb, who built this town and disappeared. And here we sit, their descendants, and paying tribute to the Khazars. And then with Dir Askold decided not to return to Rurik, and to stay inKiev, declaring himself its princes. According to the laws of that time they had no right to do this, as they were, though noble, but not princely family.
Oleg did not like that Askold and Dir refused to join theKievland to the possessions of their prince. But he also understood that the brothers now so just will not give up power. And then decided to go to the trick. Leaving behind most of their troops, Oleg several barges approached the city and sent a messenger to the impostors – report that arrived merchants coming fromNovgorodto the Greeks: Come to us, to his kinsmen. Unsuspecting Askold and Dir were on the bank of the Dnieper.
But instead of merchants came to meet them with a little prince Oleg, Igor on hand. Do not you princes and princely family, but I princely family, – he said and pointed to Igor. – A is the son of Rurik! And the brothers immediately surrounded the soldiers, who all this time hiding in boats. Imposters not spared.
Mother of Russian cities
Oleg liked in Kiev, and he decided to make it the capital instead of Novgorod.
Let this be the mother of Russian cities – chroniclers recorded words of the prince. Thus was formed the great ancient state, received the title in the history of Kievan Rus. At the new location Oleg also did not stay long. Punishing all cities became his servant to carry the new capital of the tribute, he sent an army to further conquests. By next year, the prince got involved in an armed conflict with Drevlyane, subdued them, and by imposing levies, conquered lands annexed toRussia. A year later, the Russian army marched on northerners, who were under the power of the Khazars. Oleg told them: I am an enemy to the Khazars, and you do not need to pay them. Northerners have volunteered to join theRussia, and the prince demanded tribute from them much less than demanded nomads. Similarly, in the year 885 to the Russian government withdrew Radimiches territory. Having learned that they pay the Khazars, Oleg sent to them after convincing them to join. Ulichi Tivertsy and were less tractable – Oleg long fought with them before they land became part of Kievan Rus.
If you believe the Hungarian chronicle, only once during the reign of Oleg Rusyches suffered a major defeat – when their lands have been nomadic Hungarians migrating westward. Those defeated polovtsev and besiegedKiev. The fact was there at this moment in Prince Oleg footage is silent. Maybe he was with a team in any ordinary campaign.
Hungarians left Kieva lone, the townspeople put up a large amount – 10 000 silver, and gave one thousand horses. Incidentally, in the Russian chronicles there is no word about the siege of Kiev, and is only mentioned that the Hungarians passed by the city. So, as some historians believe, it could not be.
In the steppe under sail
25 years has lived in Kiev Prince Oleg, expanding the boundaries of Russia, conquering and adding to their state coming nations. During this time, Igor matured and became co-regent Prince, as it is written in the annals, accompanied by Oleg and listened to him. Uncle personally picked for the bride’s nephew – Olga native of Pskov.
And here come a time when Rusyches healed, peace with all nations.
But Varangian blood calling to new feats and in 907 Oleg conceived a grand tour – decided to conquer theByzantine Empireitself. Prince gathered a large army, loaded her two thousand rooks and leaving Igor fill everyone inKievon the Dnieper moved towardsConstantinople. Seeing the Russian army, the Byzantine emperor Leo VI Philosopher did not dare to give it a fight, preferring to lock you in and letting invaders ravage the land. And that rooks not approached the Byzantine capital, Greeks blocked the harbor chains. But Oleg was not enough just to plunder the suburbs of Constantinople; he wanted to conquer the famous Byzantium.
And then Prince hit Greeks unpredictable storm, ordering put the rook on wheels. Catching tailwind sail directly across the field, Oleg turned his fleet toConstantinople. The Greeks were so impressed with this maneuver, which surrendered without a fight. Emperor Leo VI sent envoys to Oleg, that they agreed to the world, asking them: Do not destroy the city, we will give you a tribute to what you want, and Russian soldiers handed gifts – many dishes and wine. But the prince, he felt something was wrong, forbidden to touch these gifts. And not in vain. It turned out, the Greeks decided to overcome rusichej if not power, so cunning: the food and wine were poisoned. Realizing that the Russian prince is not so easy to navigate, Leo VI finally surrendered and agreed to any terms of winners. Primarily Oleg commanded the Greeks as compensation for the campaign to give each of his soldiers to 12 hryvnia. Sum came out huge when you consider that one boat holds about 40 people, and in Russian army of such boats were two thousand. Secondly,Byzantiumpledged to pay tribute to the Kievan Rus. To commemorate the victory of Prince arrives at the gates of Constantinople his shield and went toKievwith rooks full of Byzantine good. It is for insight and wit, displayed in this campaign, and called Prophetic Oleg.
In Kiev or Poconos?
At the very beginning we have already mentioned in passing how the legendary prince died. At least that describes his death The Tale of Bygone Years.
Even before the campaign against Byzantium Oleg asked the Magi: Why am I going to die?.
They replied: Prince! From your favorite horse on which you ride. From it you have to die. To avoid such a fate, Oleg decided that I would never sit on your pet.
The Lord ordered to withdraw animal feed them well and never show him. But when, four years after his return fromConstantinople, Prince learned that his horse is long dead, he cried: Invalid magicians say, but it’s a lie! The horse is dead, and I’m alive! – And wanted to see the remains of a rejected them once other. Arriving to the bones, Oleg said, From this skull death if I take? – And stepped on his foot. At this point of the bones seemed snake bitten and Duke in the leg. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of the Magi, and died Prophetic Oleg. It happened in the year 912.
About the same, where is buried the legendary ruler of Russia, information chroniclers disagree. Near Staraya Ladoga has mound called grave Prophetic Oleg – according to the Novgorod Chronicle, this is where lies the prince. The Tale of Bygone Years indicates a different place: the capital once he founded Kievan Rus.