French engineer, who visited the Cossacks, describes their court-gulls and manner of acting: The boat is built in two weeks. Basis is the willow or linden bark length of 13.7 meters, it was packed from side boards so that it turns the boat 18.3 meters long, 3.0-3.7 meters of the same width and depth.
Then arrange two steering, front and rear, mast and sails for each side 10-12 oars. Deck boat is not, and when it was all the excitement is filled with water, but Reed said roller gives her sink. Such boats for two to three weeks five or six thousand Cossacks can produce from 80 to 100.
In each boat sits 50-70 people. On board the boat stronger four to six small cannons. In each boat – to determine the direction of the path. In barrels – rations: biscuits, wheat, flour. Rockets thus float along theDnieper; Ataman ahead with a flag on the mast. Boats are so crowded that almost touch one another.
At the mouth of the Dnieper usually keep their galleys Turks not to miss the Cossacks, but the last selected dark night during a new moon and sneak through the reeds. If the Turks will notice them, begins a stir throughout the land, to Constantinople itself; Sultan sends messengers coastal localities, warning the population, but it helps a little as 36-40 hours after the Cossacks are already in Anatolia (Asia Minor on the coast).
Moored to the shore, they leave about every boat on guard two Cossacks and two assistants, while they themselves are attacking the city, gaining them, rob, burn, away from the shore of a mile, and prey return home.
Perhaps, the first hike in the Turkish possessions Cossacks made in 1556, when Tsar Ivan the Terrible, without waiting for another invasion of the Crimean Tatars, the clerk sent Rzhevsky conduct reconnaissance behind enemy lines.
Cherkassyand Kanev headman Prince Dmitry Vishnevetskii outfitted to assist the deacon 300 Cossacks. Army clerk at seagulls swim to the Turkish fortress at the mouth of the Dnieper Ochakov and stormed it. On the way back at the rapids of the Dnieper Tatar prince caught Rzhevsky army, but after six days of battle deacon was able to deceive the Tatars and safely return to Moscow.
In 1575, the Cossacks led by Hetman Bohdan Ruzhinskaya made a big sea campaign in theCrimea, ravaged Evpatoria and Feodosia. If such campaigns usually after returning home Cossacks of the Dnieper and Don, but this time Ruzhinsky ventured to cross the Black Seaport of Trabzon and grab, and then Sinop. And Sinop was razed to the ground. Next Cossacks went to the Bosporus and looted neighborhood ofIstanbul. On the way back Ruzhinsky besieged the fortress of Islam-Kerman.
The Cossacks had a hole under its walls, but with gunpowder clearly overzealous.
The explosion was so strong that not only collapsed wall and tower, but also killed several filibusters of Ruthenia, including himself Ruzhin.
Audacity knows no boundaries
In the spring of 1615 80 gulls came into the Bosphorus. Zaporozhtsy landed in sight of the Ottoman capital. To start with, they set fire to the port facilities in Mizivne and Arhioki. Sultan Ahmed I was at this time on the hunt. During lunch at the hunting lodge he saw from the window of the smoke from the burning of two jetties and merchant ships. Leaving their fun, Sultan mounted his horse and rushed toIstanbul, where ordered to prepare to fight all those who stood by ships. Cossacks meanwhile continued their looting and created a very great fear and confusion to the Sultan of Constantinople and all the townsfolk, quietly left the neighborhood of Istanbul.
Turkish squadron was able to catch up Cossack gulls only at the mouth of theDanube. Cossacks left until nightfall, and then turned and went on board the ship. Metaya hand incendiary bombs – hemp resin, they managed to set fire to several ships of the Ottomans. Just a few galleys were sunk, and the admiral Cossacks boarded, taking the wounded Turkish admiral. He suggested that the Cossacks a ransom of 30 thousand rubles, but without seeing freedom, died in captivity.
Such audacity, I must say, not always ends well for the Cossacks themselves. In June 1621 inIstanbulappeared 16 seagulls. The city started to panic. Cossacks passed along the shores of the Bosphorus, pillaging and burning all the coastal villages. But on the way back to the mouth of the Danubee rupted battle Cossack squadron Kapudan Khalil Pasha.
Turks managed to grab a few Cossack boats. Publicly executed prisoners in Isaccea Danube in the presence of the Sultan Osman II: elephants crushed torn apart galleys, buried alive, burned with seagulls impaled. Osman II enjoyed watching on executions and even participated in them directly involved. Driving a horse near tortured Cossacks, he, being a skilled marksman, without a miss hit them from the bow and the heads of slain ordered salt and sent to Istanbul.
Victories and defeats
Swipe action Cossacks sometimes clearly superior pirate attacks and was more like a full-scale hostilities.
For example, in the spring of 1616 in the sea came over two thousand Cossacks, led by Hetman Sagaydachnogo. In the Dnieper-Bug estuary they are suddenly attacked by a squadron of Ali Pasha and captured 15 galleys. In the Cafe at night they opened the gates Orthodox slaves. Damn city, through the slave markets which have been and are gone forever in the East Slavic many thousands of men, women and children, was looted and burned.
After that, the Cossacks crossed over the sea, where the harbor city Athens captured 26 merchant ships, then stormed Sinop and Trabzon and land army defeated Pasha CEC.
Only after that the Cossacks decided to return home. Right than not genuine troop campaign?
In 1521, Don Cossacks and the Cossacks fought in the sea with the Turkish squadron of 27 galleys. Turks victory was clearly not without difficulty, besides Cossacks shortly before the battle weathered a severe storm, drowning many Struga and seagulls. In 1625, 15,000 of the Zaporozhye Cossacks of the Don and 300 gulls headed by sea to Sinop. To stop them, was involved a fleet of 43 galleys under the command Redshida Pasha.
As a result, on the western shore of the sea, when Karagmane, now a naval battle erupted. Cossacks initially prevailed, but then the wind blew in their faces, and they failed. 270 gulls were sunk and 780 Cossacks captured. Part of them was executed, and some were sent to the galleys rowers forever. Nevertheless, the overall situation was such that the French ambassador at the court of the Ottoman wrote in Paris: Rumors of four seagulls in the Black Sea Turks scare more than the plague in the Morea or Barbary- they are so scared from this side.
Apotheosis scale Cossack raids became famous Azov sitting. In 1637, four thousand Cossacks under the Ataman Mikhail Tatarinov came to the Don, where they were joined by three thousand of the Don.
This combined army besieged Azov.
Among the Cossacks appeared well acquainted with the German siege case, the transition to Orthodoxy who took the name Ivan.
He is ably summed up by a tunnel wall. After a thunderous explosion Cossacks stormed and took the city. Russian slaves were freed, Muslims massacred and Greeks who lived in Azov, sent back home.
Some of the Cossacks, mostly Don, wished to remain in the residence and even their families were transported there. Four years later came to the Azov huge army, numbering, according to various estimates, from 100 to 240 thousand Turks and Tatars. They withstood all 5367 Cossacks and 800 women. Nevertheless, a huge horde could take only surrounded by an earthen rampart of the city. Stone citadel and did not give up. Azov came under the control of the Turks only a year later, after the king had his diploma Michael commanded: … atamans and Cossacks, no one to keep the city ofAzov; and are only accepted Velim, and you leave it and go to your old smoking.