The Tale of Bygone Years, the first state in Russia arose due vocation Vikings. In this chronicle tells us that people Chud, Slovenes, Krivichi and all turned to strangers, saying: Our land is great and rich, but there is no order.
Come and reign over us. The call due to the sea responded three brothers – Rurik Sineus and Truvor. And after the death of the last two rulers Rurik left alone, becoming the ancestor of the famous princely dynasty. In principle, it could, and begin a series of articles about the rulers of Russia.
Yet the question arises: who rules these lands before the arrival of the Vikings? After all, once lived previously mentioned Chud, Slovenes, Krivichi and all? Unfortunately, almost no documents telling about doryurikovyh times, did not survive. The only sources on which scientists build version of what was happening in Russia until the Vikings – little snippets of foreign treatises of the period, as well as oral legends. More details on the events of those years is told in Ioakimovskaya chronicles published in the XVIII century Russian nobleman, historian, geographer and Statesman Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev, but scholars doubt the authenticity of the text.
Tatischev argued that copied the Annals of the tramp of ancient scroll to it, as a historian, believed written in the beginning of the XI century the first bishop of Novgorod Joachim. But while the original at Tatishcheva gone, so set, fake chronicle or not, is almost impossible. However, some described in the annals Ioakimovskaya facts confirmed by archaeological excavations. And now even skeptical to this text historians sometimes refer to it, albeit with the caveat probably. So, after analyzing all extant – genuine and dubious – historical sources, the researchers concluded that before Rurik in Russia is probably still existed centralized state. It is often called Russian Khanate.
From Skiff and Vandal If you believe Ioakimovskaya chronicles, as well as the legend The Legend of Slovenia and Ruse is a state founded sons Prince Skiff. To take the floor and Rus came to the lake and its Il’men there two cities: the first – great city Slovensk later, as many believe, become Veliky Novgorod, the second – the city Roos now Staraya Russa. From the word power passed to one of his sons – Vandals. That he actually created the Russian Khanate, much of the land on the coast of the sea and conquered peoples themselves subdued. In Vandal had three sons: Izbor, Vladimir and Stolposvyat, each of which he built in the city. As a result, formed in Ilmen state has grown so much that in its composition, in addition to Ilmensky word entered krivichi, clearing northerner’s vyatichi and Finno-Ugric tribes.
By IX century, we found three major military and economic centers, in Arabic texts of the era called Slavia, Cuiaba and Arsania. The first two are likely to Novgorod and Kiev. About the whereabouts of Arsan opinions historians are divided. Some believe that it Ryazan, others – that Rostov and others say about Smolensk, Suzdal or Byelozero and other cities. Overseas conquerors When state rules Burevoy prince – the son and grandson of Vladimir Vandal, the wealth of his subject lands coveted overseas invaders-Vikings. Prince how could resist invasion, but was defeated by the river coming (now Kymi), in the territory of present-day Finland, and with the remainder squads hid in Byarmy. Vikings conquered land imposed harsh tribute.
But the father came to the aid designed to reign son Burevoya Gostomysl. He managed to assemble a strong squad, and expel the Vikings re-unite people in a single state. According Ioakimovskaya chronicle Gostomysl signed with the Vikings world, and since then has become silent in all the earth. Prince was not only a brave and fearless warrior, who feared all neighboring states, but a fair and wise ruler, the people loved and respected Gostomysl. Wherefore, all close people honored him and gave gifts and tributes, buying world of him. But many riches from distant countries came by sea and earth to hear the wisdom and judgment to see it, and to seek advice and teaching it since so famous everywhere.
Was there discord? Immediately the question arises: why instead of such a wonderful prince people needed to call for themselves any strangers? The fact that there was no Gostomysla successor. He had three sons. In honor of the elder, Choice, after the defeat of the Vikings, he even built a city called Vyborg. Another son, words, Jr., went to Chud land and founded the city Slovenesk later renamed in his son Izbor Isborsk. But none of his three sons and grandson Izbor did not live to the end of the reign Gostomysl to inherit power. Judging by the Tale of Bygone Years, this led to a brutal civil war. So do not come to an agreement and wanting to stop the carnage, Chud, Slovenes, Krivichi, all other allied nations decided to seek help from neighbors.
In those times of foreign lands often called princes with their retinues – for management and protection. As a result, the Vikings were called. But there is also another version. Some researchers believe that the words refer to the Varangians Our land is great and rich, but there is no order, which speaks directly about civil strife, were simply misunderstood by his contemporaries. For example, in the annals of this list by Ipatiev same phrase sounds a bit different: Our land is great and rich, but there is no dress. And in the Novgorod Chronicle says: … And naryadnika it does not. Likely refers to the position of ruler of land – naryadnik. By the way, and later to control the Novgorod lands elected people called posadniks. So no internecine carnage could have been avoided. It is likely that all happened as described in the legend one.
One who had no heirs Gostomysl had a prophetic dream: that of the stomach of one of his daughters, pricked, grew huge tree branches covered the whole city. Magi explained to sleep, what pricked son destined to take power and create on their land great state. And then Gostomysl sent messengers to his daughter, who was married to a Varangian prince, and announced the decision to hand over power to her children. When Gostomysl gone, ground rules were his grandchildren Rurik Sineus and Truvor.