Tiwanaku lies high in the mountains, however, found in its territory ruins of a large pot, seashells, pictures of flying fish and skeletons of marine animals, suggest that once the city was close enough to the sea or even located on its shore.
And recently, at the bottom of Lake Titicaca, researchers found the remains of buildings, paved roads and more than a kilometer long wall, built of huge stone blocks. According to Professor Ruben Vela of Tiwanaku Archaeological Institute found ruins – riverside temple where committed burial biggies.
How the sanctuary did was on the bottom of the lake? Researchers attribute these facts to the era before the mountain building processes that occurred 60-70 million years ago. But it is believed that if any people in the world did not exist? .. Tiwanaku got its name after the residents had left him forever. What were these people and how they called the city, historians do not know. But legend has it that the Supreme Inca Mayta Capac, stopped to rest among the ancient ruins, ran messenger with the news from the capital of the Inca Empire -Cuzco. Ruler rated diligence messenger, comparing it with the fleet-footed guanaco – relative Lama – and allegedly said: You’re fast as generics.
So the city name is displayed. Age – 250,000 years? Indians were living in these areas at the time of the Spanish invasion, believed that such a large city could not build ordinary people – it once erected tribe of giants. Researchers denied the existence of giants, however, attributed the city incredibly ancient origin. So, archeologist Dr. Kh.S. Bellamy believed that the age of Tiwanaku – 250,000 years. French paleontologist. In his book American people) suggested that the owners were residents of Tiwanaku powerful pre-Inca state, managed to erect a set of buildings and solve the problem of delivering a huge number of heavy building material. Kalasasaya, Akapana,IntiPunkuTown, or rather, what’s left of it consists of several objects. The well-reconstructed part of the city – Kalasasaya, construction with a rectangular base size 118h18 meters.
Kalasasaya surrounded by a wall, which is built in a series of monolithic columns. Courtyard buildings, occupying about a third of its area is below ground level. Included in Kalasasaya through the large stone gate on the monumental staircase with six steps. For indoor courtyard adjoined room with large windows and portals. At one time it was decorated gold jewelry, and the walls were hammered gold nails, which held copper and bronze plate. Initially perceived as Kalasasaya manor, palace or fortress, but recently, researchers are inclined to think that it was … an astronomical observatory. Some structural elements in the walls strictly orientated with respect to specific constellations, and so arranged as to facilitate the observation of the Sun Different seasons.
In the mid-twentieth century in the neighborhood of Kalasasaya found a sanctuary area of about 750 square meters, known as semi-subterranean temple. Its base of more than half a meter into the ground deepened. In 1932, Professor Wendell Bennett found a giant statue of pink stone. Monolith height is slightly less than seven and a half meters. Adorns his head something like a turban, arms folded across his chest. In one of them a vessel – kerosene, another – pututu ceremonial bugle from the sink. On the belly of the statue – a wide belt. Just south of the pyramid rises Kalasasaya Akapana. Some researchers believe it man-made structure, the other – the hill, which gives step form and on top of which, perhaps, was the temple or altar.
Others believe that Akapane was a military fortress. There still remained a small artificial lake. Further south, beyond the city limits conditional, you can see another terrace-building, Puma Punku (Gate of the Cougars). It was built of huge stone slabs, the weight of some of them more than 100 tons. Plates are carefully crafted, indicating mastery of ancient stonemasons. At the top of Puma Punku builders put the sanctuary or the altar, and then the whole property was surrounded by a double wall. One of the most famous and probably the most mysterious monuments tiauanakskih – Inti Punku (Sun Gate). They are located in the north-west corner Kalasasaya and carved from a single block of andesite 3×3, 75 m.
Gate weight – about 10 tons. The upper part of them on the east side is embellished with rich relief, centered – the main deity in the form of a human figure with a disproportionately large head, surrounded by a halo. It is formed by the beam 24, which ends each head of a jaguar or puma. Idol eyes shed tears – apparently as proof that he gave ground moisture, ie provided people here crop fields in the hands – large royal rod with condors heads upstairs. Big figure surrounded by 48 smaller figures – this image demi-poluptitsey. And over the access opening, Gate of the Sun is visible band ornament of human faces. Arthur Poznanski and other researchers Contents relief scholars interpret differently.
Some believe that the central figure symbolizes the sun god and half human-poluptitsy – the stars facing persons to their heavenly emperor. For others, on the Gate of the Sun shows tiauanaksky calendar – solar or lunar. If Kalasasaya complex – it really Observatory, the calendar is quite fitting into the idea of building. Bolivian Austrian-born researcher, professor, engineer, anthropologist and member of many scientific societies Arthur Poznanski half a lifetime devoted to the study of Tiwanaku. In his voluminous work Tiahuanacu: the Cradle of American Man on the basis of their own archaeological research and astronomical calculations scientist proved that designers and builders Kalasasaya tied to its geometry and the stars in the sky at least 12-17 thousand years ago. Of course, most adherents of orthodox science embraced opening Poznanski with undisguised skepticism.
Soon, however, a group of prominent scientists analyzed the results of his research and calculations. The group included: Dr. Hans Ludendorff, director of the Potsdam Astronomical Observatory, Dr. Friedrich Becker of the observatory speculative Vatikanika as well as two more astronomer – Prof. Dr.ArnoldKolskhutter theUniversityofBonnand Dr. Rolf Müller of the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam. They worked from 1927 to 1930 and came to the conclusion that the findings Poznanski basically correct. Among the sculptures survived the Tiwanaku, there are three of these (one – in the semi-subterranean temple and two – in Kalasasaya), some researchers suggest that a very unusual thoughts and comparisons.
These sculptures vary in size, degree of safety, style and craftsmanship. But all three depict a creature that sculptors tried to present as a hybrid of human and fish. American journalist and explorer Gray Hancock, conversing in Tiwanaku, with the locals got interesting information. It turns out that in very ancient legends speak of the gods of the lake, which had fishtails, and whose names and Chullua Umantua. Characters of the legend and tiauanakskih sculptures clearly resemble another character – the hero of Sumerian, rybocheloveka Oannes, which in ancient times out of the sea on the beach in Mesopotamiaand taught Aboriginal wits.
The strangeness and mysteries of the artifacts found in Tiwanaku, largely clarified, if we accept the hypothesis of the existence of the world in ancient times so far completely unknown highly prapratsivilizatsii, which served as a common basis for future civilizations of the Sumerians, the ancient Egyptians, as well as the Olmecs and other peoples American continent. We can only hope that in the future, archaeologists, historians and other scientists will find indisputable evidence of the reality of this mysterious culture, to establish its origin and the existence of our planet.