The XVII century and entirely by XX in different parts of the world flashed one uprising after another. In principle, government coups in history – the usual thing. Deprived of power or just rebellious nobles often called under the banners of the people to overthrow kings and kings they take the throne.
But the uprising, which we say, distinguished by the fact that no one wanted to unseat the throne of the ruler, and vice versa – people fought for that did not become monarchs. But the main slogan of the rebels reads: Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.
But what is remarkable: in exactly the same was the motto of the Freemasons, who dreamed of creating an ideal state with equal citizens and fair government. Masonic worldview perfectly conveyed in his writings, who lived at the end of XVIII century English philosopher John Locke. By the way, he was not involved in the Masons, but was a close friend of the free mason famous scientist Robert Boyle. According to Locke, the state created to guarantee freedom, equality and security of citizens, otherwise the company has the right to revolt. Same monarchical system completely contradicted the notion of freedom Freemasons.
So, then, they have generated a wave of protests calling for the over throw of the monarchy? – You ask. Well, yes and no. Let us see why. English Bill of Rights June 24, 1717 in London was created first great Masonic Lodge of England, uniting several small lodges and marked the beginning of ideas Freemasons worldwide. Begins with it the official history of Freemasonry. But this union was preceded by a very major historical event – the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in England. As we already wrote, Freemasonry was formed on the basis of artisan English Freemasons. By the XVII century, these cooperatives are no longer just building organizations.
They were a non-unified leadership, but united by common ideas of secret societies. Despite the freedom aspirations, the main principle of the Masons was full political passivity. Entering the Order of candidates swore that under no circumstances will not participate in conspiracies against the existing government, and at meetings of the lodges were forbidden even talk about political issues. Yet the idea of Masons, in particular notions of free and just society, spread rapidly through the country. Many ordinary people have increasingly shared their views. And of course, there were those who decided to make your dreams come to life. First in 1640 and then in 1688-m inEngland, there were two uprisings known as the English bourgeois revolution.
As a result, signed the Bill of Rights, depriving the majority of English monarch’s powers. It turns out it was the Masons, without taking personal participation in the revolution, became a catalyst for political upheaval. On the ruins of the Bastille Once in 1717 formed the first great Masonic lodge, it began to actively join scattered throughout England Society of Freemasons. Already by 1721 united more than fifty such companies. Country quickly covered invisible Masonic network. And yet, for the existing power it was not dangerous. First, members of the Order are still kept aloof from politics, and secondly, in England established a constitutional monarchy, which suited freedom Freemasons.
But their ideas began to penetrate overseas, and by the end of the 1730s their lodges appeared in France, Russia, Italy,Germany, Belgium, Switzer land and other countries. Not surprisingly, the ideology has spawned there Masons wave of protest against the monarchy, as well as once in England. In 1738, the Catholic Church condemned Freemasonry for the spread of revolutionary and Antimonarchist sentiment. Pope Clement XII urged to excommunicate anyone who has been initiated into this secret order. In many countries, began a crackdown on the Freemasons. But, as it turned out later. July 14, 1789 Bastille fell, marking the beginning of the French Revolution.
The rebels were all under the same Masonic slogan Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. This is not surprising, because the number of Freemasons inFrancegrew at an incredible rate: in 1735 there were only five lodges, before the revolution, there were more than two thousand, which consisted of about 100 thousand people. However, many French Freemasons ignored rule of political neutrality and openly on the side of the rebels. However, with the expulsion of the French monarchy, the company received was not what dreamed Masons. Rebellious people sent under the knife of the guillotine most enlightened aristocrats, including the Masons themselves, but many survivors were forced to leave the country.
Then France survived the terror of the Jacobin dictatorship, many coups and eventually, after coming to power of Napoleon, had returned to the monarchy. Yet the revolution served as the collapse of the old order and was the beginning of the establishment of a new democratic society. Armed with the idea In many political upheavals from the XVIII to XX century Masons not only participated, but they were headed. In 1775, 13 British colonies in North America declared its independence from Great Britain. One of the leaders of the revolutionaries was a Freemason George Washington. As a result, a new state – theUnited States. In drafting its Constitution, almost unchanged to the present day, attended another Freemason – Benjamin Franklin, a member of a large lodge Nine Sisters.
He became one of the authors of the Great Seal of the United States, on the reverse side which shows a truncated pyramid with the all-seeing eye – the symbols of the Freemasons. At the beginning of the XIX century the war of the Spanish colonies in America. Major leaders here were Masons Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. In the summer of 1912 in Moscow there was a Masonic organization Grand Orient of the Peoples of Russia. Unlike English, Russian Freemasons not only refrained from politics, but rather introduced a rule political debate at their meetings and were active in the State Duma. In 1916, the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the organization was Alexander Kerensky. A year later, after the February Revolution in 1917, he also headed the Provisional Government.
Today in the world, there are not many countries that have retained the monarchical rule. There is still a royal power in the UK, but it is only a formality for a long time. Of course, the current world is not similar to that utopian image, which saw him Masons. Yet the fact remains that the Freemasons and their ideology played a huge role in the changes that have occurred in the world over the past four centuries.