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Secrets of the Russian alphabet

07 Apr

 alphabetThat is encoded in the Epistle to the Slavs? How much cost the Russian State the letter b? Who actually suggested the use of the letter “e”? Open secrets of the Russian alphabet.

1. Message to the Slavs
Customary set of letters of the Russian alphabet is actually none other than the message to the Slavs. Each of the Cyrillic letters has a name, and if you read these names in alphabetical order, would be: Az Buki Veda. The verb natural goodness. Exceedingly Live, land, and others like kako people think in nash on chambers. One of the translations of the text is: I know the letter: this letter domain. Work harder, earthlings, as befits intelligent people – comprehend the universe! Carry the word with conviction: knowledge – a gift from God! Dare, delve to comprehend things light!

2. Unprintable Letter
It is believed that the letter “e” in the Russian language came from the French efforts exclusively Karamzin. As if in 1797 he remade in one of his poems the word “sliozy” and indicated in a footnote: “The letter with two dots replace” io “. In fact, the letter was offered for use by Princess Vorontsov-Dashkov (highly educated woman, president of the Academy of Sciences) in 1783 One of the first meetings, it asked the academics, why would the word “iolka” the first sound is represented by two letters . None of the great minds of whom were notable writers Gabriel Derzhavin Denis Fonvizin not specify the princess decided that sounds the same-two: “y” and “o”. Therefore Dashkova suggested using a new letter “to express words and reprimands, beginning with this agreement as matiory, iolka, iozh, iol.” The peak of popularity of the letter “e” fell on Stalin years: a decade of her turned out to be a special honor in textbooks, newspapers, and reprints of classics. Today “e” often see as a monument to the letter (in Russia there are several), than in the form of letters in the most book or newspaper.

3. Storm schoolboy
The letter “yat” was a kind of label that distinguished among Russian words “native” Slavic. The object of heated debate for “Westerners” and “Slavophiles” in the issue of Russian spelling reform. This torment for high school students. However resourceful young minds to help himself even composed a poem composed only of words with “yat”: P? ly, bl? projectile loader, used? projectile loader used? ting K? zhal hungry unto l? Sh. Used? lkoy on l? su on b? gal, P? dkoy ting xp? nom PSAR? And for dal gorkiy tot about? d about Dal? Tb over? lat b? d. First for the abolition of “yatya” in his time made writer and translator Dmitry Languages: “Letter? … Like ancient stone, not the place lying about which all stumble and not attribute it to the side and then only, that he was once ancient and needed for the building. “But in the Soviet period, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, known for its conservatism, advocated a return to Russian grammar” yatya “with” erom “.

4. Most Expensive letter
Er – “silent” letter that denotes no sound and served as the “hard sign”, which according to tradition was written at the end of words after hard consonants until the spelling reform in 1918 However, the “er” took more than 8% of the time and paper when Print and cost Russia more than 400,000 rubles annually. This letter-embezzler, nothing else!

5. Unto the world – the world!
Another terrible anguish for the high school students were the letters “i” and «i». However, when philologists reformers took to discuss which of the two letters removed from the Russian alphabet, the problem solved by voting! So insignificant were arguments in favor of each of them. The fact that the Greek alphabet “and” and «i» represents two different sounds. And in the Russian language in the time of Peter I could not distinguish them by ear! Letter «i» radically met only in the word “mir” in the sense of “universe.” If implied peace, no war – the word was written as “peace.” Accordingly, written and cognates “peaceful people” and “mirovoy poryadok.”

6. How was the letter word
In the Cyrillic letter “f” wore fanciful name “dandy.” Appeared the phrase “stand Firth” akimbo, and then a new noun “dandy” and even the diminutive “foppish”.

Generally, in the Slavic alphabet had two letters to represent the sound “f” – “dandy” and “fit”, but it was quite a confusion! The word “Philip” wrote then through “f” and “Fedor”, “arithmetic” through “Fitou”.

Noun “dandy” eventually became disapproving, polubrannym. In Chekhov: “There goes us one dandy with violin, scraping,” Pushkin: “We foppish young wall worth Pictures magazine.”

7. E!
The letter “e” was legalized in the Russian alphabet only in the XVIII century, when the Russian language began to penetrate the borrowed words with the sound [e] at the beginning of words, and their writing and reading was causing inconvenience: how to read – or Euripides Euripides, Euclid or Euclid? Met an unfriendly letter, Mikhail Lomonosov and even wrote that “if foreign reprimands invent new characters, it will be our alphabet with the Chinese.” But in the early XX century “Encyclopedic Dictionary F.Pavlenkova” for the average intelligent reader recommends: write a pince-nez, kenguru, ketgut, keks. Generally in the Russian language remains the feeling that “e” – the letter stranger. Remember even how to pronounce the word “Cram” Irina Muravevoj heroine in the movie “Moscow does not believe in tears” to emphasize the status of cosmetics: Import deficient.

 
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Posted by on April 7, 2014 in Historical

 

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