Diamonds come from the bottom of an ancient ocean?

DiamondsGeology professor Dan Schulze  calls this extraordinary jewel of the remote region Guaniamo  Venezuela diamond Picasso, writes Mark Whitten

Glowing blue diamond with high resolution, which was formed billions of years ago, reminds him some pictures of Blue Period of Picasso. As Cubist masterpiece, his startling special and unusual properties are not amenable to a time secrets and offer new perspectives on life and the early history of the Earth.

Diamond – a time capsule. Features chemical properties are key to understanding the unusual conditions in which were formed some diamonds “- says Schulze, professor of geological sciences department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga.

Schulze led international team of scientists from Australia, Scotland, the United States and Venezuela found compelling new evidence to support the idea that some diamonds, for example, Picasso, were formed from bacteria or algae on the bottom of an ancient ocean. These results suggest that such diamonds, known as eclogite diamonds, emerged as the organic matter at the bottom of an ancient sea that are embedded in the Earth’s mantle through geological processes, known as the shifting of. Joining a rock on the ocean floor beneath the surface, organic carbon residues then transformed by exposure to extremely high temperatures and pressures for diamonds.

The study was published in the journal Geology, released on April 2.

Unlike peridotidnyh diamonds formed from inorganic carbon found deep in the Earth’s mantle, the origin of eclogite diamonds puzzled and was inconsistent due to variations in the carbon composition. Since diamonds are impermeable, they retain an entry in the chemical and physical conditions that existed when they were formed, – says Schulze, noting that the smallest minerals, collected diamonds contain eloquent testimony to help answer a riddle.

In its geological study Schulze and his colleagues have deciphered this record, analyzing the oxygen composition of tiny grains of garnet and silica are as inclusions in eclogitic diamonds from mines in Venezuela, Australia and Botswana, and the carbon content of diamonds themselves. They saw a picture of striking anomalies in the chemical composition and mineral grains, and diamonds, which may explain how diamonds are formed eclogite.

Silica grains in the diamond Picasso, for example, have a high oxygen content, which corresponds to the volcanic rock subjected to hydrothermal alteration at low temperature at the bottom of an ancient sea, but differs from typical mantle material. Nowhere else on earth will you find such values, except on the bottom of the ocean – says Schulze. Diamond itself has a low content, similar residues of living organisms.

The same pattern was found abnormalities in more than 20 diamonds on three continents.The simplest hypothesis is that diamonds were formed from organic materials undergoing shifts. This is not just a local phenomenon. This geological process that was repeated throughout the world in diamonds of different ages in three different places,- explains Schulze.

His research also sheds new light on the origins of the two famous diamonds of the British crown, the Cullinan 1 and 2 Cullinan. There is a high probability that the Cullinan diamond, the largest diamond ever found gem-quality diamond eclogite is formed from material of biological origin – he says. – But we’ll never know, because we can not get the diamonds to the study!

Life could have started at the bottom of an ancient sea, and Schulze study suggests that many of the world’s diamonds were born there too.There are people who never did not believe it. But these results make many skeptics accept the hypothesis, which is becoming increasingly difficult to refute

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