Start two research groups independently created unique stem cells from an embryo after cloning adult cells. This technology in the future can be used to generate patient-specific tissue replacement in degenerative diseases, for example, to replace the entire pancreatic tissue in patients with type 1 diabetes.
First stem cell lines from cloned human embryos were reported in May 2013 a team led by an expert in the field of reproductive biology Shoukhrat Mitalipov University of Oregon Health and Sciences in Beaverton. Their cells were carriers of genomes taken from embryonic cells or cells vosmmimesyachnyh babies. Then it was unclear whether the technology to work, if we take samples of cultures in adult patients.
Now two groups of scientists answered yes to this question for his successful experiments. The first team led by Yang Chung Ki (Young Gie Chung) and Don Lee Ruhl (Dong Ryul Lee) from Seoul University announced April 17, 2014, that they cloned embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using the cell nuclei of two healthy men aged 35 and 75 years.
Colony of embryonic stem cells cloned from an 32-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes (photo Bjarki Johannesson, NYSCF).
Another team led by a specialist in the field of regenerative medicine Dieter Egli (Dieter Egli) of the Research Institute at New York fund stem cell research, published an article in the journal Nature describing his experiment. They talk about the ESCs derived from cloned embryos containing DNA 32-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes.
For cloned embryos, all three groups have used a modified version of laboratory technique called therapeutic cloning (SCNT), in which the nucleus of a cell of the patient is placed in an unfertilized human egg, previously deprived of its own nucleus. Thus the cell is reprogrammed to an embryonic state.
Recall that it was using this technique in 1996 was cloned from an adult cell first mammal – Dolly the sheep.
The creators of the new methodology note that ESCs produced by cloning, much safer and more reliable than the popular nowadays induced pluripotent cells. Last produced by adding genes to cells of an adult patient, due to what they are reprogrammed back to the embryonic state. But even a slight genetic mismatch may cause rejection of the new tissue.
Green fluorescent marker notes the kernel in the blastocyst, which was formed after somatic cell nuclear transfer (photo NYSCF).
Apart from the main application, the new technique of cloning embryos will also help improve methods of reprogramming adult cells and explore the unique embryonic cell cultures and their development. Nevertheless, the authors are almost sure that on a pair of three experiments, it will not work: a technique is expensive, technically difficult to perform and certainly entail ethical differences. Also, get an egg from a healthy donor is not easy and not cheap.
Considering the induced pluripotent cells and ESCs from cloned embryos, scientists are inclined to believe that the first method is optimal for screening for drugs, but until ESC is more suitable for practical medical purposes.
Mitalip doctor says that studies comparing the IPK and ESCs from the same donors already underway. However, in the U.S., the situation is complicated by the federal ban on the use of public funds for research and production of stem cells. The researchers hope that their work will attract the attention of colleagues who interested in these experiments, which in turn will lead to a softening of government bans.