The human body that science can not answer

BodyWe now know about the human body is much more than ever before, but despite the huge number of important studies, many of our features still remains a mystery.

1. Why do we have fingerprints?

Despite the obvious benefits of fingerprints, science really does not know anything about their natural function. Some scientists have developed sophisticated computer models to understand how fingerprints are formed, and although we now know about it, why evolution has given them to us, nothing is unknown.

Perhaps researchers will soon be able to solve this riddle. In the world there are several families with a strange genetic disorder called adermatoglifiya – these people have no fingerprints. In addition, they are much less sweat, and while they are so healthy as everyone else. The researchers hope that the study of these families and their genome will help unravel the mystery of evolutionary fingerprints.

2. How do probiotics?

If you’ve ever seen the commercials of yogurt, you may have heard the word “probiotics” or “live bacteria”. Many of the manufacturers advertised yogurts claim that their product contains live probiotic cultures that are beneficial for overall health. It sounds as if the producers of yogurt discovered something new, but science has long known that probiotics are a kind of helpful bacteria in the human gut. And, oddly enough, yogurt makers do not say what exactly do these live cultures useful for health.

Nobody said anything substantial in the first place because no one knows how probiotics work. In fact, many of probiotics, which are used as food additives or added to foods used because of their shelf life, and not because they are good for health. Of course, there is no harm from them, but scientists are just beginning to learn exactly what the health benefits of each type of bacteria give.

Researchers believe that if they can determine the impact of all the beneficial bacteria on the human body, it will be able to answer the many other questions, in particular, will learn a lot about the treatment of various diseases. However, for the solution probably take a long time, because in the world there are hundreds of probiotic bacteria.

3. Why do we have different blood types?

You probably know that there are four major blood groups, and if you ever donated blood for analysis, then you know what blood type you have. This is a pretty important thing, because the blood is not the same group can destroy you if you suddenly have to do major surgery.

Since blood group first appeared 20 million years ago, we had plenty of time to learn about them, though, of course, studies began much later. We are well aware of the principles of the blood groups, but still have no idea why they are different and why it is needed in terms of evolution.

Blood group antigens are classified according to blood cells. These antigens represent signals antibodies that destroy foreign cells in the human body. Antibodies fine in contact with the right type of antigens, but attack other antigens, resulting in the wrong type of blood transfusion or organ transplantation is wrong can be fatal.

Yes, science knows about blood a lot, but not as many questions still remain unanswered. For example, we have no idea why we need these antigens. We can assume that they have some relation to diseases and immunity, as evidenced by some interesting findings.

For example, scientists have found that people with the third blood group are more susceptible to E. coli, and those who does not belong to the group system Duffy, have almost complete immunity to a form of malaria. Although the reasons for the appearance of blood groups say impossible, but it is believed that they appeared as a way to combat infectious diseases.

4. Whether the brain remains active after decapitation?

There are many legends about how people beheaded within a few minutes after the horrific death remain conscious. In some stories a person blinks or commit other traffic, to show that all perfectly aware. Sounds like a children’s horror story, but in reality we do not know how long the brain can remain active in this situation and whether at all.

Conduct research difficult, primarily because just take behead human scientists can not. The only real opportunity for data collection existed in France before and after the revolution, when the main method of execution was the guillotine – then there have been several experiments, but only one of them documented.

The case described by Dr. Gabriel Borough: eyes on severed head men opened for a short time to focus on a certain point before you close forever. The doctor came to the conclusion that some functions remain active for almost 30 seconds after decapitation, but he could not determine whether a person is saved consciousness.

5. Do people have pheromones?

Animal when it comes to reproduction, rely on smell pheromones partner. Because of this, researchers are trying to find out whether pheromones play a role in human interaction. But the more responses we get, the more entangled. Many studies have shown that people definitely smells affect, but with pheromones a bit more complicated.

For a long time, scientists were not sure if they have special people like olfactory organ that is used to detect pheromones animals. Nevertheless, we have this, but it is very small and undeveloped, so it is unclear if it works at all.

According to the study, all people have their own unique smell, what we owe their genome. For example, newborn babies can recognize the smell of their mothers, and if women are regularly smell each other, their menstrual cycle can be synchronized. Obviously, to learn about the human body sense of smell is still much needed.

6. What happens when someone struck by lightning?

If you’ve ever been away from home during a thunderstorm, especially in the vicinity of metal, you probably thought that you may be struck by lightning. It’s quite a daunting prospect: after a lightning strike may have permanent brain damage, very severe burns and can even die. Although, as this all sounds horribly, most victims survive. Some even remain fully intact, and science has no idea why.

To find out what was happening, the researchers went to South Africa, where lightning occurs most often occur and are stronger than anywhere else in the world. They found that lightning in a special way passes through our bodies. They decided that it has to do with the incredible electric charge passing through a person in a short period of time. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered, and the more we know, the more victims could be saved.

7. As a woman may not know she was pregnant?

Agree, it seems doubtful: woman claims was very surprised when he suddenly had a baby. All nine months she lived a normal life and completely did not suspect anything, but here – the child was born. This does occur, albeit rarely, so study this phenomenon is very difficult.

One of the reasons that a woman may not know she was pregnant – is overweight, which in turn means that it can be gaining more and more weight, so that the additional weight of the child and will not notice.

It seems to be worth thinking about a very serious violation of the menstrual cycle, but for many women, especially those who suffer from being overweight, irregular cycles, and that the menses not many months, they basically normal. In addition, in some women during pregnancy are small regular bleeding that can be mistaken for menstruation.

However, sometimes it happens and perfectly healthy women. One patient of Dr. Sabrina Sukhan – a case in point. This woman had a normal weight, she even worked in the medical field, so I knew all the signs of pregnancy, but did not suspect that she was pregnant until the birth. Doctors still can not understand how this is possible.

8. How do the mitochondria?

Mitochondria are an integral part of our body. The sole purpose of microscopic organelles – turn the whole world consumed food into energy. A very long time we did not know about the mitochondria almost nothing but science is close to understanding how they work.

More recently, scientists have learned how mitochondria transfer energy. Also, scientists have learned that love mitochondria calcium, which can sometimes cause problems if the mitochondria absorb too much calcium, it can kill cells. This is due to diseases like diabetes type.

Researchers believe that these diseases affect the signaling process by which the body informs the mitochondria, how much calcium is absorbed, and how much – to display. A team of researchers from Harvard recently managed to catalog each protein in the mitochondria, including all of the proteins associated with the assimilation of calcium. So far, little information, but we are about this mystery can unravel.

9. Why ear consists of three bones?

We used to hear sounds. How it works in principle understandable. If the ears are not exposed to undue strain, then performs its function very well and special care is not required. But not all of the same species ears. Stanford researcher Sunil Puria noted that reptiles and birds ear consists of two bones, and mammals – they are three. Why is unknown.

According Puria, we hear a number of ways. The first way is obvious – passes through our ears sound. But still we hear when vibrations from the movement of our vocal cords pass through the bones of our skull. When you say you hear your own voice not like he’s heard all the rest. This explains why we are so obnoxious own voices when we hear them from the side – for example, audio or video.

The best theory Puria why our ears consist of three bones, based on a strange disease called syndrome baring front semicircular canal. This condition can lead to a decrease in tissue in the ear canal, resulting in people hear other sounds which are not normally perceive their own kind heart beats. Puria suggests that perhaps a third ear bone is needed in order to reduce these effects to a minimum, but requires detailed research.

10. What bacteria live in our own language?

It would seem that the human mouth is certainly not contain any secrets, we know what the teeth and how they work, understand that represent a gum, and we know a lot about the taste buds. A language at first glance have nothing to hide at all, but in fact the language – it’s just a storehouse of secrets.

Doctors around the world would like to get for research on language living bacteria to study their as detailed as possible and thus save lives. However, the majority of bacteria with our languages do not grow in a petri dish, so to classify and understand them very difficult.

This lack of understanding – the biggest stumbling block in the treatment of gum diseases like periodontitis. Doctors do not know really how to treat it because of bacteria, which occurs due to periodontitis, very much, and we know too little about them.

Recently, researchers have been able to grow a bacteria from the oral cavity by means of DNA and they hope that this will allow a better understanding of how to deal with diseases of the oral cavity. Nevertheless, too many bacteria, and yet many of the microorganisms that live in our mouth, remain a mystery.

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