Why is there life?

30 Jan

Our liveLife is amazing, one of her amazing appearance, good for the emergence of the genetic code of your reader, difficulty levels, and for other calculations, you need to almost ten billion years, and it is longer than the life of the Earth. That is, we were lucky. But there is an alternative point of view.

Say, for physics England Jeremy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (America) the origin of life as predictable as a tendency to fall down the stone.
Let’s think, suggests scientist from a physical standpoint distinguishes inanimate carbon-molecules from living: second better at absorbing energy from their environment and its dissipation as heat. Note that appear such problems sometimes can handle and black, but the efficiency of life in a given direction yet really high. Imagine trying to distinguish the living from the nonliving in formulas, Mr. England came to the conclusion that a group of atoms, which are third-party sources of energy and is surrounded by a thermal bath, often will gradually restructure itself, in order to dissipate more and more power.

Thus, under certain conditions material certainly acquire the key physical attributes associated with life. If you just sharpen that Jeremy does, then we get the following: “You start with a random lump of atoms, which shine for a long time and not be too surprised if he suddenly becomes a plant.” Easy to understand that part of colleagues, Mr. England was to his work as a very uncertain, the other – as a breakthrough, and some believe that both of these are inherent features. So, Eugene Shakhnovich at Harvard University (USA) considers it deeply speculative, at least at this stage. Yes, the formula describing the behavior of matter under certain conditions, works. But is this desire atoms better dissipate energy guarantee for the development of the process leading to the emergence of life? .. Jeremy England idea is basically simple: the second law of thermodynamics, entropy increases with time, cools hot, eggs hatch, but the opposite does not happen, and so on.

While energy is distributed unevenly in the system, according to the theory of probability, paths for further dispersion has more than concentration. Although in theory the cooling coffee can have a chance to warm up again spontaneously, in fact, it is so impossible that anything like happens. Although entropy must always increase with time, it can be clearly seen mainly in closed systems, the benefit of their open analogues of energy can be distributed unevenly between atoms by channeling entropy outward into space surrounding the open system. In 1944, Erwin Schrodinger announced that it is exactly what makes living things to maintain their existence. During photosynthesis, the entropy of the universe as a whole is growing, but the plant protects itself from decay, maintaining an orderly internal structure. Of worldwide fail if I do not drink tea, whether it chooses first.

However, during the time of the Schrodinger equation of thermodynamics solved only for closed systems, which are also in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Needless to say, that life originated not in them. In 1960 Ilya Prigogine to some extent succeeded in predicting the behavior of open systems, to a lesser degree controlled by external energy sources (Nobel Prize 1977). Alas, life emerged where to thermodynamic equilibrium was far away, and the impact of external energy sources – extremely strong, the same prediction in such an environment, we still do not know how. In the 1990s, thanks to the Americans Zharzinski Chris  and Gavin Crookes everything changed.

It has been shown that the thermodynamic entropy of the process corresponds to a simple relationship: the probability that atoms pass through the process divided by the likelihood that they will go in the opposite direction. With the increasing production of entropy, this ratio increases: the behavior of the system becomes more irreversible and the probability of a cup of coffee samozakipaniya inevitably falls. The idea is that such undeniably do not care how far from thermodynamic equilibrium, the environment in which the process takes place. Actually, Jeremy England only added to this approach is strongly influenced by an external source (electromagnetic waves) and the ability to dissipate heat outside – qualities inherent to the class of systems that includes living organisms and non-living materials found on the surface of the Earth.
England Simulation shows that the viscous fluid by the particles that vibrate under the influence of external force over time (top-down) form between them a more links. Inanimate particles tend to dissipate more energy when they are in resonance with the external power source or the moving direction in which the external force pushes them. Eventually they are inclined to move in this direction than in any other. Groups of atoms surrounded by a thermal bath certain temperature, as in the case of the atmosphere or ocean, eventually will rearrange itself so that all the better resonate with the source of mechanical, electromagnetic or chemical work in their environment, – says Mr. England .

Self-reproduction – a process that brought to Earth all that inhabit it today life – one of the mechanisms by which the system can dissipate the increasing amount of energy over time. Great way to dissipate energy – is the production of a large number of copies of itself, – he says. In September (2013) issue of Journal of Chemical Physics, the researchers showed that the theoretical minimum dispersion that occurs when the self-reproduction of RNA molecules and bacteria, is very close to the real number, which these systems dissipate at reproduction. When this RNA is is a particularly cheap in terms of energy building material, and that determined its victory. Jeremy emphasizes that some of the phenomena of inanimate nature may be due to the same process of adaptation of matter along the line of maximum energy dissipation. “Many examples can be right under our noses, but because we were not looking for them, we do not see them, – says the physicist.

Incidentally, a recent paper, according to which the vortices in turbulent fluids reproduce themselves spontaneously , borrowing energy from the shear layers of their environment. In another case, experiments with clusters of microspheres show their tendency to dissipate energy, linking the sphere close to the same clusters . The scientist believes that snowflakes, dunes, eddies have much in common in the sense that they all have a repeating structure that arises in multiparty systems, driven by the process of energy dissipation. In the case of experiments on bacteria should also not forget that “there are just a mutation, and able to influence directly on many factors and is not always necessary to hurry up with the definition of lead. Check all of these ideas are not so simple: the process of the emergence of life from a pile of atoms should not be quick. On the other hand, the concept can still be partially experience – correlating the efficiency of energy dissipation mutant lines of living cells at the speed of their reproduction.

If they are indeed correlated, Mr. England will receive at least indirect evidence of his innocence. At the same time, caution is when you are hot, you start to fan a newspaper, but it can be interpreted not only as a simple desire to heap atoms represented by Petya Ivanova rassevanie strengthen energy in the surrounding area. If this view is confirmed, many painful questions like why the body needs X trait Y» cease to be such: general patterns of growth efficiency of energy dissipation can explain several features of certain organisms without their attraction to the ears often precarious status of evolutionary advantage.

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Posted by on January 30, 2014 in Historical, Human


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