In science fiction, it often comes to artificial reproduction- usually for human cloning to produce organs and eugenics, ie the selection of embryos according to previously established criteria. Science fiction is rarely focuses on the field or imitation of aliens. Some works, however, talk about the intergalactic love, kidnappings and violent relationships. As is often the case, the aliens are a reflection of our fears and secret fantasies.
In addition, hybrids of people and the newcomers raise interesting questions regarding the classification and evolution of species. Though the reproduction cycle of some aliens, and has been described in great detail this applies, for example, biological cycles and dissimilar stages of development ksenomorfov in the movie Alien, the majority of science fiction characters it does not apply. Even if the aliens and humanoid form, their reproduction usually does not say just about anything. Recall that half the world is not at all an essential characteristic of each species-the reproduction of most organisms are vegetatively, that is a simple cell division with a doubling of the genetic heritage of chromosomes. This type of breeding is much easier to sex- for it is sufficient only kidney or cutting. Vegetative reproduction and more efficient in terms of number of offspring. Nevertheless, it becomes an obstacle to genetic mixing because offspring, in fact, represent the initial clones body. The same applies to parthenogenesis- one female gives birth to identical offspring males and females. This type of reproduction exists in some plants, insects and reptiles, and in most cases leads to the formation of a complex matriarchal society. Simultaneously, a man and a woman Whether parthenogenesis or cloning, clones still are born naturally.
When cloning becomes artificial, it raises concerns about the fact that in the future it may become the objects and people in the eugenic purposes. For example, in Star Wars have developed biotechnology inhabitants of the planet Kamino secretly grown and prepared an army of clones based on the genes of the most dangerous bounty hunter. Later in the movie The Island is described by the underground community of sterile clones-they are raised as organ donors for living on the surface of the rich. Moreover, even if reproduction is sexual, it does not necessarily imply the existence of two separate sexes, as evidenced by the inhabitants of the earth are hermaphrodites- flowering plants male and female sex organs, stamens and pistils are in the same flower, and land the cochlea and marine animals clown fish life as a male, then becomes a female. Is not this fish has been a source of inspiration for the novel by John Varley Golden Globe in which genetically modified at the request of the actor changes sex to solo play Romeo and Juliet? Close encounters of the third to the third floor in the Seksomorfoze Ayerdalya- Emeline in this book, which can easily change your gender, trying to find herself.
Moreover, since sex is not only for reproduction but also for pleasure, some writers represent the most that neither is on the hot scenes between humans and aliens. Philip Jose Farmer was one of the pioneers of erotic science fiction in Loving written in 1952, the story was not accepted by publishers, but in the end came in the form of the novel in 1961, the author describes a dangerous liaison man who runs away from the formed theocracy in the world, and a beautiful extraterrestrial she’s human in form but in substance insecticide. Thus, Farmer used sex as a weapon of social criticism in Puritan America. Thus, shape, type, amount and methods of using sexual organs depend on the species and worlds- the world of insects genitals so dissimilar that it distinguish one species from others! On other planets may be all, unless of course, the size of mutually compatible. When from these intergalactic relations hybrids are born, they can be taken quite differently. Star seeds, peace symbol in the series Kenneth Johnson, was the fruit of love, the human resistance activist and lizard from Sirius, who flew in for the invasion of Earth. However, the most famous hybrid of science fiction is, of course, Spock of Star Trek, the symbol of the interplanetary miscegenation and respect for others.
This son of Vulcan’s dugout and raises interesting questions in terms of phylogeny and classification of species. How is it called Spock? In zoology there are no clear rules, but usually uses a combination of syllables of the names of species of both parents. For example, zebroid – a descendant of a zebra and a donkey belonging to a family of horses, a natural hybrid, which has seen Darwin in South Africa. Here it is necessary to clarify that the first part of the name of the hybrid usually gives father- so tigrolev – it’s a cross between a tiger Panthera tigris and lions , while the liger – offspring of a lion and a tigress. Thus, Spock could be called vulkaninom . Note also that he had a son, so he – able to breed hybrid. And this fact in turn said at least from the standpoint of earth’s classical biological that his parents genes compatible. Thus, the Vulcans and humans are either the same species or the same genus. Suppose that Homo sapiens have priority over the Vulcans. In this case, all the residents of Vulcan, including Spock’s father, are Homo sapiens vulcanensis if you belong to the same species or Homo vulcanensis if you belong to the same genus.