The next time you look up into the night sky, remember that you are looking at the cemetery. The Milky Way is littered with dead stars – from black holes and neutron stars to dim white dwarfs. Often these stellar corpses tell a little about his past. But sometimes they shed light on how they – and the planets that were close – lived and died. What does this say about the distant stars – even the Earth orbit is a dump dead space technology. March 17, 1958 The United States launched Vanguard I – the fourth satellite is created by man, and the first solar-powered – on a medium earth orbit. Contact was lost in 1964, and Vanguard became the oldest man-made object in orbit and still one of the best preserved pieces of human garbage. In July 2009, counted 902 active satellites of 30,000 man-made objects in space, literally a drop in the sea of orbital debris. In an attempt to limit the probability of collisions between operational spacecraft and space debris, the International Committee for the Coordination of space debris has decided to withdraw non-functioning satellites in orbit, the cemetery. Graveyard orbit- Also known as sverhsinhronnye orbit, garbage disposal orbits or orbits, orbit, cemetery occupy the space of a few hundred kilometers above synchronous orbit. Transfer of vessels to the burial orbit requires less effort than the descent from orbit of the object, and taken as a rule, when the velocity necessary for the accomplishment of de-orbit maneuver is too high. However, the movement of an abandoned spacecraft to orbit the trash can be complicated, requires a reliable control and the same amount of fuel as necessary companion for the three months of the flight. As a result, only one of the three satellite operators achieves success in reducing their ships to orbit the trash at the end of their useful life. The other space junk In 70-80 years the Soviet Union launched a series of marine observation satellites in the program RORSAT, equipping their nuclear reactors to provide enough energy for their radar. Although much of this fleet eventually went to the burial orbit several satellites – Cosmos-954, for example – has fallen along with radioactive material on Earth. But even those satellites that have successfully made it to the junk orbit at risk of being punched and begin to let go into space coolant. And the risk for nearly 50 years. Forming droplets of a few centimeters, the liquid is able to create your own field debris. Space debris in the form of lost equipment also does not live, Greenpeace. Ed White lost his glove in space, Michael Collins lost a camera during the mission “Gemini-10” space station “Mir” threw garbage bags. Orbiting the Earth revolves wrench flies toothbrush. Another camera, lost during the flyby STS-116, with the participation of the space shuttle Discovery. And during the STS-126 Endeavour dropped the box with a pair of pliers and tools into space. Lower stages of solid rocket boosters are supposed to fall back to Earth after launch, but the upper stages begin and end their lives in orbit, entering the ranks of honorary space junk. NASA and the U.S. Air Force took steps to improve the survival of accelerators, but does not help everyone. In March 2000, the Chinese upper stage has created a cloud of debris, exploding in orbit. A similar incident occurred in February 2007, when the Russian rocket exploded over South Australia. In memory of astronomers got footage of explosion, more than 1,000 fragments of which are still found in different parts of the lonely continent. Eight explosions occurred in 2006, before that it was only the number of crashes in 1993. Another Russian rocket exploded in 2012, the degree of contamination is not defined yet. The main sources of pollution are unwanted side effects of anti-satellite weapons test U.S. and Russia during the Cold War. And in 2007, decided to practice, and China, resulting in orbit has got a lot of junk. Imagine that you set the bags of garbage out the door of his apartment. If you are not domosedstvovali, one day you will have to get out. Useful grave space “Space grave” may be more curious to explore. Dying is not only earth satellites, but entire planets, stars and asteroids …. Not so long ago we wrote about the fact that scientists have found evidence that around the white dwarf GD 61 once revolved rocky, water-rich asteroid – the one on which you may well expect to find someone else, but the living world. Most of the stars (including the age of 4 billion years, like our Sun) end their lives white dwarfs, after the work out all their nuclear fuel. These ultra-dense star coals have such strong gravity that any element heavier than helium instantly falls to the core of a dwarf. Imagine the surprise of astronomers when they discovered that some white dwarfs are shrouded in layers of dirt of silicon, oxygen and other elements placed higher in the periodic table. This pollution is composed of “pieces of planetary systems that have fallen to the central star,” explains Jay Farigi, an astronomer at Cambridge University in the UK, the magazine Wired. By studying the elements that make up pollution, scientists can look into the past and find out which consisted of asteroids, comets and planets floating in the solar system. In Pollution GD 61 Farigi and his colleagues found a curious abundance of oxygen. The first thing to think scientists – most of the asteroid was carbon dioxide in the form of dry ice. The trouble is that around 61 GD no carbon dioxide has been found. Therefore, the only viable chemical substance that holds an abundance of oxygen, could be just water. According to the journal Science, a team of scientists suggested that GD 61 was crushed rocky asteroid, containing from 26 to 28 percent water by weight. About the size of Vesta in our asteroid belt asteroid orbited the precursor white dwarf stars of type A, which was slightly larger than our sun. After the death of stars and strong gravity white dwarf, apparently dragged asteroid and tore him to pieces. Water-rich asteroids are considered important in the formation of habitable planets as they crash into and provide the life-giving water – water. And while we are “of course, we can not rewind time” to look at what looked like GD 61 to death, says Farigi, asteroid discovery indicates that the present system of building blocks of Earth-like. In the future astronomer hopes to look at the system with a powerful telescope such as ALMA, in Chile, and to see whether there were ever any of the survivors of the planets, well or other asteroids from the belt, which has produced abundant water bomber. Search water-rich asteroids near the white dwarf inspires term hope that life can once again flourish in these dead stars, says John Debesh, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, also did not participate directly in this study. Once the star is dying a painful death, the white dwarfs remain stable for billions of years, which means a possible recurrence of life, so to speak. The only problem is that the planet should be located close enough to the white dwarf to obtain the necessary heat – as close as the destroyed asteroid was set to GD 61. If the system will show up the planet, located in this range, the team Farigi try to find the same water that was destroyed by an asteroid. What does this across the galaxy? The fact that such a cosmic graves we can define the shadow of bygone past, with all their diversity, organic and inorganic chemistry. This means that the range of potentially detectable objects with life is much broader than we can imagine. As for the debris orbiting the earth, for it is only we will be judged by our descendants.
That hide the cemetery space