“Mariana Trench” the deepest place on the planet. I think almost everyone has heard about it or have studied in school, but I myself, for example, has long been forgotten, and its depth, and the facts of how she was soundings and investigated. So he decided to “refresh” his and your memory.
Its name, this absolute depth obtained from the near by Marianas Islands The whole valley stretches along the islands and a half thousand kilometers and has a characteristic V-shaped profile. In fact this is the usual fault lines, the place where the Pacific plate goes under the Philippine simply Mariana Trench – the deepest part of it for that matter) its steep slopes, an average of about 7-9 °, and the bottom – flat, width from 1 to 5 kilometers , and divided into several thresholds of closed areas. The pressure at the bottom of the Mariana Trench reaches 108.6 MPa – more than 1100 times greater than normal atmospheric pressure!
The first who dared to challenge the abyss, were British – a three-masted military corvette “Challenger” with sailing equipment was rebuilt in the oceanographic ship. But the first data on the depth of the Mariana Trench have been obtained only in 1951 – according to the sampling depth of the depression was declared equal to 10,863 m then the deepest point of the Mariana Trench became known as the “Abyss Challenger” (Challenger Deep). It is hard to imagine that in the depths of the Mariana Trench easily fit the highest mountain on our planet -Mount Everest, and over it again and will remain more than a mile of water to the surface … Of course not fit in the area, but only in height, but the numbers are still staggering…
These researchers were already Mariana Trench Soviet scientists – in 1957, during the 25th flight of the Soviet research vessel “Vityaz”, they haven’t only announced a maximum depth of depression equal to 11,022 meters, but also established the existence of life at depths greater than 7,000 meters , thereby disproving the common perception at the time of submission of the impossibility of living at depths greater than 6000-7000 m. In 1992 “Hero” was handed over to the newly formed Museum of the World Ocean. Two, the ship repaired at the factory, and July 12, 1994 fell on eternal parking at the museum quay in the center of Kaliningrad
January 23, 1960 was made the first and only person dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. Thus, the only people who visited at the bottom of world.