The biggest mysteries of Mars

Ancient MarsScientists for decades have been puzzled by the dissimilarity between the two sides of Mars. The northern hemisphere of the planet – a smooth and low – is one of the most smooth and level surface in the Solar System.

Potentially, it could be formed because of the water that once splashed on the Martian surface. At the same time, the southern half of Mars – all cut up rough and cratered. It is about 8.4 kilometers higher than the northern part. Recent studies suggest that these differences between the southern and northern sides of the world can be connected with a giant cosmic body, which could very long time ago to fall on the surface of Mars.

What is the origin of methane on Mars?
Methane – the simplest organic molecule – was first discovered in the atmosphere of Mars spacecraft “Mars Express” of the European Space Agency in 2003. On Earth, most of the methane produced by living organisms, such as cattle digesting food. It is assumed that methane is stable in the Martian atmosphere is only 300 years old, but who or what could generate this gas so long ago – remains a mystery.

Yet there are ways to methane without the participation of living organisms, such as volcanic activity. The new program of the European Space Agency “Ekzomars“, which will be launched in 2016, will study the chemical composition of the Martian atmosphere, the scientists were able to learn more about the Martian methane.

Is there liquid water on Mars?
Although a large body of evidence indicates that Mars once had liquid water, whether it exists today – remains a mystery. The atmospheric pressure on Mars is very low, about 100 times less than the pressure on Earth, so it is hardly liquid water may still exist on the surface of the Red Planet. However, dark long lines that we can see on the surface of Mars, hinting at the fact that salt water streams can flow through them each spring.

Were the oceans on Mars?
A large number of Mars missions showed that Mars has many signs of what was once on the surface splashing water. It is very likely that there were oceans, the network of valleys, river deltas and minerals that can form water.

However, current models of early Martian climate can not explain how could exist on a planet such high temperatures to form liquid water, as the sun warms the surface of the planet is much weaker. Maybe some of the characteristics of the surface cannot be formed by water, wind or other mechanisms? However, all indications are that ancient Mars was still warm, and its surface may be water, at least on one side. However, some scientists argue that ancient Mars was cold but humid, although this theory continues to deny.

Is there life on Mars?
The first spacecraft to land successfully on Mars – NASA’s Viking 1 – first to try to solve the mystery of whether there is life on Mars, but so far the answer has been received. Today, this issue is of concern Mars researchers worldwide. Viking has founded organic molecules, such as methyl chloride. However, it later emerged that it was the earth impurities, which were part of the cleaning fluids in the preparation of the device in the world.

The surface of Mars is quite suitable for the emergence of life on it, as far as we know, because there are appropriate conditions suitable temperature, radiation, excessive dryness and other factors. Know a lot of examples where life appeared on Earth even in more severe conditions, for example, in the far north, in dry soils Antarctic Dry Valleys, and in the very dry Atacama Desert in Chile.

Where there is liquid water on Earth – life is everywhere, so scientists believe that if there is water on Mars, there must necessarily be a life. When scientists answer the question whether there is life on Mars, they will be able to shed light on a number of other questions that remain unanswered today, for example, may or may not be life originated elsewhere in the universe.

Life on Earth came from Mars?
Meteorites that have been found in Antarctica came to our planet from Mars. They extend to the red planet during its collision with other space objects. These meteorites have structures that resemble the structures created by terrestrial microbes. While many studies suggest that, most likely, these structures are obtained by chemical means, the debate in the scientific world continues. Some researchers believe that life on Earth has been brought from Mars long ago, and it can stand here just meteorites.

Can humans live on Mars?
To finally answer the question of whether or not there life on Mars, people can fly there and find out.

In 1969, NASA had planned for the organization in 1981 by sending human missions to Mars to establish a permanent Martian station by 1988. However, interplanetary travel involving human were not such a simple task as from the scientific and technical point of view.

The astronauts have long dreamed of such flights. For example, the volunteers agreed to live for a year on a spaceship. It was the longest space flight simulation that was ever developed, aiming to reproduce on Earth is what could be the mission to Mars, from the beginning to the end.

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