Accurately 300 years later, February 12, 1961 from the Baikonur commodore in the cold night sky rose booster “Lightning”, carrying farther from the Earth a little man-made miracle, designed to explore the infinite cosmos.
After a few hours of automatic interplanetary station (AWS) “Venus-1” lay on the course for the Morning Star. Unfortunately, the first attempt came out lumpy – the connection with the AMC has been lost, and the scientific program failed.
In 1962, the station swept past Venus “Mariner-2”, confirming that Venus rotates slowly on its axis in the opposite direction: from the east to the west, and not the rest of the world from west to east. “Venusian night” lasts 58 Earth days. Venus has no magnetic “umbrella” to protect against harsh space radiation, and very red-hot atmosphere of a planet – perhaps the best place for Ada.
The image in the visible spectrum and izoobrazhenie by radar
The next few years, the Soviet and American stations repeatedly studied neighborhood distant planet with flight path, finally, in 1966, the Soviet interplanetary station “Venus-3” Suicidal peak pierced purple clouds Morning Star and first reached the surface, bringing to Venus pennant USSR.
In June 1967, the Soviet Union organized an expedition to Venus – heat resistant device was to make a soft landing and to study the planet’s surface. Many months of the flight was to plan – “Venus-4” successfully stalled in the atmosphere of Venus, the parachute opened, went telemetry data stream … The lander was crushed at an altitude of 28 km – pressure of the Venusian atmosphere exceeded the estimated 20 atmospheres. Has been completely revised model of the atmosphere – according to data from the “Venus-4”, the pressure at the surface should reach 90-100 terrestrial atmosphere (at a depth of one kilometer under water – the man will not make a heavy diving equipment)!
Over the next 10 years on the surface of Venus landed a landing battalion – 8 interplanetary probes series “Venus.” One of the recent AMC – “Venera-13”, worked on the surface of 127 minutes in an environment with a temperature of 457 ° C and at a pressure of 93 atm. During this time, the station transmits to Earth colored panoramas Venusian landscape and exclusive recording of sounds from another planet. Groans of tormented sinners to her there, but heard the distant rumble of thunder.
Last Soviet satellites visited Venus in 1984 – two-series “Vega” studied Venusian atmosphere with balloons. Amazing airships for two days drifting at a height of 50 kilometers, enjoying the beautiful weather (pressure of 0.5 atm., Temperature 40 ° C) and a magnificent view of lightning on the night side of the planet. Then they were blown away and fell into the fiery abyss.
Baton to study Venus took NASA – U.S. researchers chose not to meddle in the hellish atmosphere of the Morning Star, studying Venus from orbit. Particularly distinguished probe “Magellan” – from 1990 to 1994, he held a detailed mapping of the entire surface of the planet.
Swimming is canceled. Water temperature is minus 180 ° C.
In August 1999, above the Earth hung a terrible threat – close to our planet at speeds of 19 km / s swept probe “Cassini”, two years ago started to Saturn. Like any device for deep space exploration, “Cassini” gained the necessary speed by gravity assist – probe first flew to Venus, from getting powerful acceleration pulse returned to Earth from the globe received another boost, and headed to Jupiter. Finally, in 2004, “Cassini” has turned into an artificial satellite of Saturn, almost without running the engine for all of its long journey.
Cosmic balancing act has caused a storm of protest among the “green”: for miscalculation by a thousandth of a percent could lead to disaster. Speeding probe weighing about 6 tons as a fiery meteorite crashed to the surface of the Earth, with particular concern is the presence on board of 33 kg of plutonium. But everything went smoothly – “Cassini” up to hundreds of meters above the ground flying at an altitude of 1200 km.
For the past eight years, “Cassini” thoroughly researched system of rings and moons of Saturn. Mission extended to 2017, while considered the most exotic version of the further use of the probe – from studies of Uranus and Neptune, before the collision with Mercury … alas, in the research proposal has won the most prudent – to continue the study of Saturn.
One of the main rooms of the program was enchanting landing probe “Huygens” on Saturn’s moon Titan. A celestial body has long attracted scholars – even during missions “Pioneers” and “Voyager” was revealed to be the largest moon of Saturn (2 times of the moon) has a strong atmosphere with a high organic content. Of course, the Titan is too far from the sun, but … all of a sudden it is attended by extraterrestrial life forms?
AMC’s “Cassini” separated small “tablet” and disappeared into the clouds of Titan. Descent “Huygens” in Titan’s atmosphere was a real fall in the abyss of the Orange – scientists until the last moment to wonder, where will spank probe: in the icy ocean of liquid methane or, still on a hard surface.
“Huygens” landed on the shores of the ocean of methane, deep in the sand and liquid methane mud. A brave officer for four hours led coverage of this terrible world – as long as the relay “Cassini” disappeared over the horizon. During this time he managed to transfer 474 MB of data, including the sound of the wind on Titan. Exclusive audio recording exclusively for the readers of “Military Review”:
Aerial photos clearly showed how the methane flowing rivers, and the ocean of liquefied natural gas floating blocks of ice from the frozen ammonia. In the orange haze barely visible icebergs; apocalyptic picture complements ongoing black methane rain.
But NASA and ESA scientists would love to come back there again. The only thing that frightens them – this is not methane rain, and the cost of the project. Hell, for the sake of pictures, I would be ready to invest part of their funds. What people think about this dear readers?
While our ships travel Bolshoi Theatre …
… Japanese interplanetary probe “Hayabusa” (peregrine Jap.) landed with a fence of soil on the asteroid Itokawa. Three times the unit closer to the surface of a small celestial body (the transverse dimension of about 500 meters), and every time something broke itself. In the end, out of service propulsion system, and the delivery of soil to Earth became problematic. But the cunning Japanese did not panic – it is nothing in space just is not lost. Three years later, in 2009, when disorientated “Hayabusa” occupied an advantageous position relative to the Earth, the experts were able to restart the ion engine, and a capsule with soil samples of asteroid Itokawa has been successfully delivered to the home planet. In return, the asteroid remained aluminum plate with the data on the planet Earth and the memorable landing. I’m afraid, the aliens can not make out anything in Japanese characters.