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World greatest empires in history

04 Jul

empireThe empire is “the supreme power that is an entity over an area that encompasses people of different ethnicities and nationalities.” Well today we are going to talk about those great empires that have existed throughout history, and there have been many, so sure that this list generates great controversy-

10. Ottoman Empire. Began as a small state more Turks appeared in Asia Minor during the decline of Seljuk Empire. The Ottoman Turks were gradually controlling the other Turkish states and under the reign of Muhammad I (1451-1481) ended with what was left of the Seljuk dynasty.

The first phase of Ottoman expansion took place under the rule of Osman I and continued in the reigns of Orkhan, Murad I and Beyacid at the expense of the territories of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria and Serbia. Bursa fell under his domain in 1326 and Adrianople in 1361. The Ottoman victories in the Balkans to Europe warned of the danger this represented Empire and were the central motif of the organization of the First Crusade. The site that brought the Ottomans to Constantinople was broken by Tamerlane, the Mongol leader, who took prisoner Beyacid in 1403. But the Mongol control over the Ottomans did not last long.
At its height, between the sixteenth and seventeenth expanded across three continents, controlling a large part of Southeast Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, bordering Morocco on the west, east to the Caspian Sea and south Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia and Arabia.

9. Spanish Monarchy. Reached 20 million square kilometers in the late eighteenth century, reaching its maximum expansion occurred between 1580 and 1640, during the reigns of Philip II, III and IV.
The Spanish Empire was the first global empire, because for the first time an empire covering possessions on every continent, which, unlike what happened in the Roman Empire or the Carolingian ground did not communicate with each other .
The constant struggle with rising powers of Europe, often simultaneously, for long periods and based on both political and religious differences, with the gradual loss of territory, difficult to defend for their dispersion, contributed to the slow decline of Spanish power. Between 1648 and 1659, the peace of Westphalia and the Pyrenees ratified the beginning of the decline of Spain as hegemon. This decline culminated in regard to control over European territories, with the Peace of Utrecht (1713), signed by a monarch who came from one of the rival powers, Felipe V: Spain renounced his territories in Italy and the Netherlands low, losing hegemony in Europe, resigned to continue to dominate European politics.

8. Persian Empire. It spread through the territories of present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Egypt. Territorial expansion began in the reign of Cyrus II, with the annexation of the kingdom Mede, and reached its peak around the year 500. C., when it came to encompass part of the territories of present-day Libya, Greece, Bulgaria and Pakistan, as well as certain areas of the Caucasus, Sudan and Central Asia. The great achievements made him the largest empire in extent before. Its existence ended in 330 BC. C. when the last of the Achaemenid kings, Darius III, was defeated by Alexander the Great.

7. Byzantine Empire. As a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire, its transformation into a cultural entity different from the West can be seen as a process that began when the Emperor Constantine the Great moved the capital to the ancient Byzantium (which then renamed New Rome, and later called Constantinople), continued with the final split of the Roman Empire into two parts after the death of Theodosius I in 395, and subsequent disappearance, at 476, the Western Roman Empire, and reached its peak during the seventh century under Emperor Heraclius I, whose reforms (particularly the reorganization of the army and the adoption of Greek as official language), Empire acquired a markedly different from the old Roman Empire.
During his millennium of existence, the Empire was a bastion of Christianity, and protected Western Europe advance of Islam. He was one of the main commercial centers of the world, establishing a stable gold coin that circulated throughout the Mediterranean area. A determining influence on the laws, political systems and customs of much of Europe and the Middle East, and through him were preserved and passed on many of the literary and scientific works of the classical world and other cultures.

6. During the Han Dynasty Han Dynasty, kings adopted the teachings of the great philosophers of antiquity, Lao-Tse and Confucius. The government went well making territorial expansion. He encouraged education and writing in the newly invented rice paper. It led to a great exchange of goods on the Silk Road, which runs from the Pacific Ocean to Persia and India. China officially became a Confucian state and prospered domestically: agriculture, handmade products and commerce flourished and the population reached 50 million people. Meanwhile, the empire extended its political and cultural influence on the current Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia and Korea before collapsing under a combination of internal and external pressures.

5. British Empire. Understood domains, colonies, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. During the first decades of the twentieth century, the British Empire covered a population of about 458 million people and about 33 million km ², which meant about a quarter of the world population and a fifth of the land area.
The peak itself was developed for about 100 years (the so-called imperial century developed between 1815 and 1914), through a series of phases of expansion related to trade, colonization and conquest, as well as periods of diplomatic activity.
The Empire facilitated the spread of technology, trade, language and the British government throughout the world. Imperial hegemony contributed to dramatic economic growth in Britain and the weight of their interests on the world stage.
The growth of anti-colonial nationalist movements in the territories subjects during the first half of the twentieth century challenged an imperial power, which increasingly had to worry about issues closer, especially after World War II. Taking this opportunity, first in India, and after her other territories in Asia and Africa to become independent states claimed. After several disastrous attempts to avoid it, Britain had to accept the new situation that led to the old Empire to become what today is the Commonwealth.
The end of Empire joined the economic problems that Britain had to face after the end of World War II.

4. Holy Roman Empire. Was the political union of a conglomerate of Central European states that lasted from the early Middle Ages to the Contemporary Age. Formed in 962, has its origins in the eastern part of the three in which the Carolingian empire was divided. Since then, the Holy Roman Empire remained the dominant institution in central Europe for almost a millennium until its dissolution in 1806 by Francis II. Under the Emperor Charles V.
In addition to the territory of Holstein, the Holy Roman Empire included Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, with Carniola reaching the Adriatic coast. To the west, he belonged to the free county of Burgundy (Franche-Comté) and Savoy, to which were added Genoa, Lombardy and Tuscany in Italian soil. They were also integrated in the empire most of the Netherlands, with the exception of Artois and Flanders, west of the Scheldt. From the north of the Alps, took a month to cross the imperial territory in the north-south or east-west.
Never had a vocation to become nation-state, only sought to integrate nations into one sacred concept of nations with bases Renaissance Christian-Roman Catholic with one common purpose, despite the Germanic character of most of its rulers and inhabitants. Since its inception, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of various peoples, and a substantial part of their nobility and elected officials came from outside the Germanic-speaking community.

3. Russian Empire. In the late nineteenth century, the empire comprised 22,900,000 km ². According to 1897 census its population reached 125,640,000 people, inhabiting the majority (93.44 million) in Europe. More than 100 different ethnic groups lived in the empire (the ethnic Russians comprised 44% of the population). Besides the present territory of Russia, in 1917 the Russian Empire included territories of the Baltic states, Ukraine, Belarus, part of Poland (Kingdom of Poland), Moldova (Bessarabia), the Caucasus, Finland, most of Central Asia and part Turkey (the provinces of Ardahan, Artvin, Iğdır and Kars). Between 1732 and 1867 the Russian Empire also included Alaska, across the Bering Strait.
After the monarchy was overthrown Tsarist during the February Revolution in 1917, Russia was declared a republic under a provisional government.

2. Mongol Empire. Land empire was the longest continuous history, and that at its peak stretched from the Korean Peninsula to the Danube River, coming to have an area of 33 million square kilometers and more than 100 million people , including some of the most advanced nations and populated at the time, such as China, Iraq, Iran and the countries of Central Asia and Asia Minor.
The decline of the Mongol empire was by several factors, among which tribal rivalry or assimilation of the conquered cultures, as with so many nations in their possession, were continuous rebellions.

1. Roman Empire. The birth of the Empire is preceded by the expansion of its capital, Rome, which extended its control around the Mediterranean Sea. Under the imperial phase of Rome domains continued to increase until reaching its maximum extent during the reign of Trajan, when it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean west to the shores of the Caspian Sea, Red Sea and Persian Gulf to the east and from the Sahara Desert south to the woodlands on the banks of the Rhine and Danube and the border with Caledonia to the north. Your estimated maximum surface would be about 6.5 million km ².
The domains of Rome became so extensive that soon were hardly controllable by a Senate unable to move the capital or to take decisions quickly. Also, a growing army had revealed the importance of having the authority over the troops for political gain. That left a personal ambitions, whose main objective was power. This was the case of Julius Caesar, who not only extended the dominions of Rome conquered Gaul, but challenged the authority of the Roman Senate.
His end came when at the beginning of V century, Germanic tribes, pushed westward by the pressure of peoples Huns from the steppes of Asia, entered the Roman Empire. Borders gave for lack of soldiers to defend them and the army could not prevent Rome was sacked by Visigoths and Vandals. Each of these people settled in a region of the empire, where they founded independent kingdoms. One of the most important was that derive ultimately in the Holy Roman Empire. The emperor of Rome no longer controlled the empire, so that in the year 476, a barbarian chieftain, Odoacer, deposed Romulus Augustulus, a 15 year old boy who was the last Western Roman Emperor and sent the imperial insignia to Zeno , Eastern Roman Emperor.

 
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Posted by on July 4, 2012 in civilization, Earth, Historical, Mysterious

 

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