Tsunamis are more frequent, occurring mostly in the Pacific Ocean because it is the largest expanse of water worldwide, primarily affecting the Asian coasts, islands of this continent and the West Coast America.
The ten most deadly tsunamis have caused throughout history have been:
10. Sanriku, Japan (1933) – 3068 Deaths. On March 3, 1933, on the eastern coast of Honshu Japan, was again hit by a great tsunami, after having also been some 40 years earlier by an even greater . This tsunami was caused by an earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale, destroyed over 5000 houses and leaving more than 3,000 fatalities.
Especially hard was the situation in the small village of Taro, which lost 42% of its total population and 98% of the buildings. Now, this coastal town is protected by a wall of anti-tsunami 10 meters high and 2 kilometers long, which saved Taro from another large tsunami in 1960.
9. Hoei, Japan (1707) – 5,000 Dead. At 14:00 on 28 October 1707, Japan suffered the devastating earthquake in its long history, causing great damage to the island of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyu-Shu. The tsunami caused by the previous earthquake was so strong, said that was the cause of the eruption of Mount Fuji, just 49 days later.
8. Mindanao, Philippines (1976) – 5,500 Dead. On August 16, 1976, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale struck the Philippine island. In addition to all the dead, killed more than 10,000 injured and nearly 100,000 people were left homeless. Devastated the provinces of Basilan, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu and Zamboanga del Sur.
7. Valdivia, Chile (1960) – 6,000 Dead. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake, also known as the Great Earthquake of Chile earthquake was recorded on Sunday 22 May 1960 at 15:11 local time. Its epicenter was located near the city of Valdivia, Chile, and had a magnitude of 9.5 on the scale seismic moment magnitude, the highest recorded in the history of mankind.
Almost fifteen hours after the event in Valdivia, a tsunami 10 meters high struck the island of Hilo on the islands of Hawaii, more than 10,000 km from the epicenter. Similar events occurred in Japan, the Philippines, Rapa Nui, California, USA, New Zealand, Samoa and the Marquesas Islands.
6. Papua New Guinea (1998) – 8,000 Dead. This tsunami was caused by a previous earthquake of 7.1 on the Richter scale. It is estimated that the waves caused by the tsunami reached up to 15 feet, leaving 8,000 people in addition to the already mentioned about a thousand missing and nearly 10,000 people homeless.
5. Lisbon (1755) – 10,000 Dead. The so-called Lisbon earthquake of 1755 occurred on November 1 of that year, and has been attributed a magnitude of 9 on the Richter scale (not tested as there were no seismographs in the time), was centered in the Azores-Gibraltar fault (800 km southwest of the southern tip of Portugal). Besides destroying Lisbon and shake the ground to Germany, the earthquake caused a large tsunami that affected all Atlantic coasts. Between thirty minutes and one hour after the occurrence of the earthquake waves between 6 and 20 meters above the port cities of Lisbon and southwest of the Iberian peninsula killed thousands and destroyed towns. More than a thousand people died only in Ayamonte and as many in Cadiz, many populations were destroyed in the Algarve and the coast of Morocco and Huelva were severely affected. Before the arrival of the huge waves, the waters of the Tagus estuary to the sea retreated, displaying goods and forgotten boat hulls lying in the bed of the harbor. The waves spread, among other places, to the coast of Martinique, Barbados, South America and Finland.
4. Agadir, Morocco (1960) – 12,000 Dead. This small Moroccan village, was even smaller after the earthquake caused in 1960. Such was the destruction and the few people in this town that survived the government of Morocco left him abandoned and not rebuilt, accommodating people who did not die in other areas of the country.
3. Sanriku, Japan (1896) – 22,000 Dead. We’ve talked about it at number 10 in this ranking, which appears also in the Sanriku region, Japan. It was the deadliest in the history of Japan and taken by surprise by the authorities since the tsunami caused by the earthquake above 7.2 on the Richter scale, was much greater than is normal for that number .
2. Krakatau, Indonesia (1883) – 36,000 Dead. The eruption of Krakatoa volcano has already been discussed in this blog . On August 27, 1883 at ten and five (local time), the enormous explosion of Krakatoa, which wiped out the aforementioned volcano along with approximately 45% of the island that housed it, produced a wave of between 15 and 35 meters in height, according to the zone.
The union of dark magma magma clear in the center of the volcano was what caused the explosion. But not only the waves killed that day. Huge lava pyroclastic even traveled on the sea floor and emerged on the coast closest Java and Sumatra, by boiling the water and destroying everything in their path. Also, the explosion delivered into the stratosphere aerosol lot, which caused a drop in global temperatures. In addition, a series of eruptions that re-formed a volcano, which was called Anak Krakatoa, ie ‘the son of Krakatoa ”
1. Southeast Asia (2004) – 250,000 dead. To date, the most devastating tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 in the Indian Ocean, with a number of tsunami victims directly attributed to a quarter of a million people. The areas most affected were Indonesia and Thailand, although the destructive effects reached areas located thousands of miles: Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and even Somalia in eastern Africa. This resulted in the greatest natural catastrophe from Krakatoa, in part due to lack of early warning systems in the area, perhaps because of the rarity of such events in this region. The earthquake was 9.1 degrees: the third most powerful earthquake in Alaska (9.2) and Valdivia (Chile) 1960 (9.5). In Banda Aceh formed a wall of water 20 to 30 m high penetrating the island 5 or 6 km from the coast inland, only on the island of Sumatra killed 228,440 people or more. Successive waves reached Thailand with waves of 15 meters that killed 5,388 people, in India killed 10,744 people and Sri Lanka, there were 30,959 victims. This tsunami was caused tremendous addition to His great magnitude (9.3), that the epicenter was only 9 km depth, and tectonic plaque rupture was 1,600 km in length (600 km more than in the earthquake Chile, 1960).