Human has a more inhabitants as Europe there are already more than 1000 years, a people who invented the press and the paper before us and who is much interested in its history is a people that provides the material first to fill entire libraries. A people offering themes in large numbers and that are reflected in various facets 1000. “Even the words of Hermann Scriber, although very suggestive, fail to account for the Cultural Heritage of China, a state with a long history, fertile, complex and tormented unfortunately, many of which are written, but you never know enough.
Some passages in the history of China
The history of Chie is divided into dynastic cycles. The first three dynasties was the Xia Dynasty [pronounced ch-ia] (XVI-XXI BC), Shang Dynasty [pronounced ch-Ionne] (sixteenth to eleventh centuries BC) and Zhou Dynasty [pronounced Tchiou] which is divided into period Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou period. In total the Zhou dynasty ruled the eleventh century BC to 221 BC From nombeuses dynasties succeeded one another, among the largest recall the Qin Dynasty [pronounced Ch-in] (221-207 BC) comes into the country name China. This dynasty is a famous archaeological point of view because it dates back to the Terracotta Army; further recall the Tang Dynasty (618-927) during which Buddhism spreads and produces a rich literary and scientific creation. The last dynasty, also known as modern dynasties, the Ming Dynasty are (1368-1644) and Qing Dynasty [pronounced Ching] (1644-1911). The first was a totally Chinese dynasty, the Manchu second was, that is to say, governed by the inhabitants of Manchuria. This dynasty ruled until 1911 when it lost the “mandate of heaven” and that China became a Republic.
The word shang in Chinese means business. Sahng period was one of the most successful periods and production of Chinese history. For a long time we wondered if this period had really existed, given that there was not enough remains to show 100% its existence until the bones were found oracular.
The oracle bones
The oracle bones were discovered by chance, only recently, in the old Ngan Yang. This is a philologist who discovered in 1899 during the colonial era, during the Boxer Rebellion in China (the Boxer Rebellion was a popular uprising). Because of this tumultuous period many discoveries were dispersed. The oracle bones are the largest concrete and written evidence of the Shang Dynasty. Scientific value as this discovery is equivalent if not superior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This is animal bones (especially the shoulder blades of beef, deer and pig, in fact this practice was also known scapulimancy) or tortoise shells (the lower part of the carapace, which is flat) on which were incised signs. Someone thought that these signs represent numbers but it is much more problable whether letter, sentence, in the sense that through this technology we wanted to ask questions reenrollment ancestors therefore the assumption of numbers seems rather unlikely. The oracle bones, indeed had a goal and divination during the Shang divination and shamanism were widely practiced.
The bones and turtle shells were polite and rambles with a special substance. Then one side we created cavities in regular lines, so as to cause a reaction on the other side with heat sources, the cavities were issues, the reactions were heat through the answers. a similar divination is still practiced in Africa when we throw the bones in the sand, and Mongolia when we throw small sticks into the powder. The test is the same.
How we read the answer is not very clear, it looked perhaps the magnitude of the angles formed at the intersection of two major cracks. It was the shaman who interpreted the answer, in his absence the duty was done by the king to China since the king was to have magical powers, he must know such cure.
During the Shang period, the scaulomancie attained very complex and towards the end of the period had been taken usually record the same data on bone divination, bone and thus we also wrote:
A preface: date and place of divination
The theme of divination
Verification, ie if at a distance of some time the answer has proven true or not. Verification is not always present.
The oracle bones are extremely important, they were a colossal discovery because they were signing the transition from prehistory to history and they have demonstrated that the Chinese historie is much older than what is thought: scientists now argue that China has a history of 7,000 years. It is extremely difficult to decipher the signs on the bones but the little that we managed to decipher is still important in history and archeology, for example it was discovered the names of emperors and their families. The experts were able to decipher only 1/5th of this immense heritage. If they could decipher all the bones culture would receive a tremendous contribution.
The Shang and the world of the Gods
The Shang had a very strong relationship with the gods, and they practiced divination for everything: hunting, sacrifice, weather, farm work, dreams, etc. construction of buildings. This aspect of divination is only one of many aspects related to shamanism. Among the various shamanic techniques of Shang there were libations, that is to say that Shang drank alcoholic beverages to reach the trance. During their shamanic rituals there were always animals, without them the “trip” could not be accomplished. The sacrifice involved both people and animals.
The most important deity for Sahg was SAHNGDI, ie a supreme deity who decided the fate of all men. To address the Sahngdi Sahng had to apply to real ancestors, regarded as mediators between the people and the deity. This médition left thinking that Shangdi was perhaps an ancestor, an ancient ancestor, who had actually exist then “deified”. The chnois indeed believed that the ancestors, since they had been generated, continued to watch over them in good as in evil, therefore they made their tribute constantly. Towards the end of the Shang period as the sacrifices of witchcraft were being fallen into disuse. Divination was considered a formality.
After this was the Shang Zhou dynastei. Zhou kept the worship of Shangdi but of course he refused passage between the god of the ancestors and the people because they were from another clan. The Zhou had developed the concept of celestial deity, a god of the sky and Shangdi claimed that had transferred to the heavenly mandate Zhou was the heavenly mandate to rule that the license according to Chinese tradition came from heaven. This is heaven, according to this tradition, which chooses who is to reign and until when. The tradition of celestial principal has survived to the last dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, who ruled until 1911 during which both the Qing monarchy itself pertinent the heavenly mandate.