Evolution from apes to humans of the modern species occur not only morphological changes, that is external, but internal, spiritual. People have learned to think logically, to restrain impulses of passion, say, finally. And who can say exactly what changes were more important for the development of mankind? Maybe that’s when our distant ancestor first thought of the eternal and tried to express some of his thoughts through what today we call art, and he embarked on a difficult path, which eventually led to the emergence of Homo sapiens.
To this day there are numerous works of art of ancient people, yet to fully understand how our ancestors thought, we hardly ever can. Generally a very long time, despite the fact that the scientific world has accepted evolutionary theory, and explored the remains of ancient people, nobody could even imagine what the creative heights reached first people. And when in 1878 an amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola found in the cave of Altamira in Spain, a gallery of beautiful pictures (bison and other animals), made by ancient masters, no one believed him. A unique discovery found a fake – say, the primitive primitive man could not so perfectly portray the animals. Only in 1902, after the death Sautuoly and detection of several more of these galleries, the scientific world has recognized the true figures, belonging to the primitive master hand, which until then only seen a hunter, not an artist.
Now no one denies that ancient man could create beautiful things, but to call them works of art in the modern sense of the word, hardly anyone dare. To denote the art of ancient people in science there is such a thing as syncretism, ie, fusion, indivisibility and unity of spiritual and material spheres of life and art, the world of real and fictional. Religious ideas, art and everyday life is linked inextricably, linked to such an extent that it is essentially separate from one another is impossible. Life staff, obtaining food, procreation, death, neighbor, views about the world, and so forth – all this is equally evident in paintings, engravings, carvings, sculpture.
Even those far from the modern human being, like the Neanderthals, left behind evidence of “spiritual sphere” of their existence. The so-called “landmark work” Neanderthals – it rocks, pieces of bone with some grooves, lines, crosses, stained ocher. Importance is the fact that all this was done deliberately, created Neanderthal man for a reason. There are many theories to explain the meaning of these strange “images”, but it’s probably a hunting symbols: a variety of scoring – the wounds inflicted by an imaginary beast, ocher spots – his blood. Hunter, creating such a thing as to kill an animal, provided a successful hunt.
For the same purposes Neanderthals piled altars bear the whole: in a few caves (in the Alps, in Georgia, and others) were found skulls of bears, folded in a certain way – in a stone box in a row against the wall, thrust into the slot. Often found whole compositions of skulls and bones – and that means that these stocks were not the stock of meat or something like that. Rather, it is a religious act, a form of worship, “appeasement” of the mighty animal – a rival for the Neanderthal living space. Perhaps in such cemeteries bear roots lie totemuzma – sort of a common ancestor veneration in the form of an animal or plant – religion, which is characteristic for almost all primitive peoples.
Similarly, Homo sapiens expressed his hopes and beliefs, but, of course, in a more perfect form. The images made by ancient people, are mostly rock paintings. These images were made in natural colors, scratched on the rocks or pieces of bone (engraved) could be a relief, made from natural rock asperities. The majority of the known image is in the depths of caves, a mile or more from the entrance – where people of non-residential. So, he came here specifically to put the image. It was a special (sacred) place, and the drawings themselves were used for some ceremonies, otherwise they would not have been so deeply hidden from the eyes of the general population.
Since the main subject of the image were animals, and the ones that are hunted in the area, it becomes clear that these rituals were associated with hunting – so, from what is directly dependent on the life of ancient man. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that so many pictures to be seen as signs of injury, is also drawn: bleeding Bears (engraving in the cave of Trois Freres, France) drawn by the trap (Cave de Fon Gom) sledyudarov caused by a painted animal (Cave Nio). Apparently, for the old man or a horse drawn mammoth were as real as the real thing. In order to be successful hunt, the hunters went into the cave and killed an animal, thinking that by doing so, as it were before the animal is killed at a future hunt. It’s called hunting magic. Thus, the image suffered the deepest meaning and symbolic value. For example, in the cave of Altamira bison figures painted as if in multiple layers, one atop the other – because they are constantly hunted.
In some caves near the paintings were discovered human footprints, imprinted in the clay soil. We can assume that the powerful images of animals were used for initiation rites – the children moved into the next age group, became hunters, “acquaintance” may at first with a painted animal.
Although images of animals quantitatively dominant in primitive art, but there are also drawings of human figures. These images are not very realistic, unlike the animal. People are usually depicted schematically (the cave of Lascaux), and with some fantastic additional features – such as witches from the cave of the Three Brothers (Montesquieu-Avantes). What is the meaning of these images are – we do not know for sure.
In this sense, women are more intuitive picture presented in the most statuettes – so-called Paleolithic Venus. These impressive works, found in many places – in Willendorf (Austria), Dolni Vestonice-on-Dyje (Moravia), Savignano (Italy), Lespyuge (France), etc. – all very different, but nevertheless, what- is similar. Thus, the most characteristic feature of their common features are exaggerated expression of sex: chest, abdomen, buttocks. In this head can only be poorly planned or even “not viewed” (Savignano). All of these figurines – the embodiment of motherhood and fertility, and each bar highlights this special, very feminine function. Only a woman can start a new life. Ancient people could not understand why, but the importance of having children – the new team members – clearly aware of, and probably admired the ability of this woman. Carving stone sculpture like that old man in such a way to multiply their kind. However, not all of Venus were pyshnotelye: Gagarino in the parking lot were found statues that do not have such severe symptoms of the female sex. Apparently, this is the image of women of different ages: the young girls and old women. That’s just not clear what they symbolized. Men are found in the same image 10 times rarer than the female.