Long ago six thousand years ago, the plain of Mesopotamia was the country impassable, overgrown with reed marshes. During the flood of two great rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, completely filled this valley, and over the water were a crown of high trees. Mesopotamia was uninhabited – there could not live people, and only at the edges of the valley in the foothills, small villages huddled first farmers.
On the banks of creeks farmers grew rye and wheat, and on the slopes of grazed sheep and goats. Four or five thousand years over the foothills of the Golden Age of the sun was shining, and the plowman worked peacefully in their field to the singing of a lark. But in the end, it’s time to adversity farming villages proliferated, and the fields are no longer able to feed the peasants began feuds over land, and the losers were forced to go aimlessly on the marshy plain. It is probable that such a fate conquered the Sumerians got the people – “Blackface” as they called themselves afterwards. In the V millennium BC, the marshes were first Sumerian villages: a dozen huts covered with reeds and tiny sanctuary on an artificial mound. To win at the swamp farmland, the Sumerians had to dig drainage ditches and fill dams – to create the first irrigation systems. It was a difficult and long labor, but the results exceeded all expectations – irrigated fields gave amazing, fabulous yields: thrown into the land of corn yielded 60 grains. To the Sumerians came the Golden Age and they began to release water from the captivity of his new home.
Village of the Sumerians lived the same life as the peasant communities of other countries in South Asia. While the land was sufficient commune together drained fields, with plowed and harvested together. These inherited from the ancient traditions of collectivism hunters did not cause any doubts at the time of prosperity and wealth, when all have enough and they were all full. But gradually the congregation grew, and in the lean years began to feel a lack of bread. The peasants began to reflect on his life, and the best workers began to say that when working together, many are lazy. “If you work together, the work will move slowly, – said the Chinese treatise – there are those who will not work at full strength. If we divide the land, the work goes faster and Lenya would not. “Indeed, the plow – not to hunt pen, you can work the same – and all that you will grow up to be yours, “to everyone – to work it.” The fields were divided among the families in the same areas, but to preserve the validity of these sites from time to time reinvading. “Fat land was not allowed to enjoy some one from the bad lands were not allowed to suffer to some one, so every three years, exchanging fields and homes.” Ancestral temple has been allocated a large field, and community members were treated to work together, with the grain of this field is kept in reserve and issued the needy, feeding them lived at the temple artisans and priests, of his beer was brewed for the tribal festivities. Over time, the land of the temple, too, was divided into plots: one to put the harvest went to the priest, the other craftsmen, the third – in reserve.
Meanwhile, time passed, the population grew and after each redistribution petty plots. Few children of the family began to oppose redistribution; they are required to consolidate holdings in the masters, so that the head of the family itself divided his land among his sons. Gradually redistribution ceased: the land turned into private property.
Appearance of private property has paved the way for great changes in people’s lives. Tribal community was divided into families, and families fenced off from each other by fences. In place of the old community of women and free love came a harsh family morality. After the invention of the plow plowman fed his family-man, so he became the master and lord, the woman slowly turned into a maid, and property. In some families children were little, in others – a lot, and after the partition of land plots were obtained his father’s uneven. In the community there were rich and poor. The poor could not be fed with their tiny plots, they took the grain loans from rich neighbors – so there was usury. Insolvent debtors, in the end, they sold their land and the lenders were looking for food as they could. Many of them went to work in the temple; the temple is now cultivated land troops operating from the impoverished community members and strangers-strangers. Some rented the land from wealthy neighbors, others tried to feed the craft became potters and weavers. In the villages there were quarters and crafts markets, where artisans traded their goods for bread. Overgrown villages turned into a crowded city – and with it the transformation changed shape of the age. In place of quiet villages of the Golden Age came to a new world – a world of cities, where wealth and poverty side by side, good and evil, hatred and love. Philosophers of the XX century the world would call bourgeois society.