The giant cephalopods can drag to the bottom of the ship. But everyone knows – the films and novels – that none of the diver can not get out of the wreckage wrecked ship countless treasures and a pearl diver to produce impressive size, so as not to come to grips with a huge octopus… It has long been the sailors whose lives and work are closely connected with the ocean, believed in its depths live the strange and enormous creatures – Krakow, do not look like any fish, any jellyfish or other aquatic creatures.
However, in the legendary appearance of these animals, in terms of unusual physique and behavior, which gave them a myth, it was something to do with octopuses. However, these chimerical monsters are much more massive and dangerous.
In the stories of sailors about his encounters with these creatures of the ocean felt the breath of life, and lived through the fear of the monster scared of people. With the advent of large ships arrived century a comprehensive study of the ocean and its inhabitants. It became apparent that the depths of the monsters – a myth arising from a known propensity of sailors to the most incredible exaggerations, and the animal that gave rise to these legends – the octopus.
Describes over 100 species of octopus, but all of them – the animals are small, no more than two feet in length. Only three or four species possess sufficient muscular strength to emerge victorious from the “melee” fights with the man. This is a common octopus, Octopus Dofleyna, octopus, and Apollyon close to it the Hong Kong Octopus.
The first lives in all tropical and subtropical seas and oceans. The second is common off the coast of Japan, and occasionally occurs in the southern Kuril Islands and the Gulf Posiet. Apollyon live in the rocks off the coast of Alaska, Western Canada and California. At length they reach 3 meters and weigh from 25 to 50 kg.
Species of these animals belong to the order dvuzhabernyh cephalopods living in the seas and oceans. They are called cephalopods because their tentacles are located exactly on the head.
And they styled “aristocrats sea.” The reason for this was their blue blood. Such an unusual color is due to the fact that in erythrocytes and plasma hemoglobin instead of hemocyanin found in which the iron is replaced by copper.
In addition, nature has provided these “noble” animals with three hearts. The main one consisting of one ventricle and two atria and nourishes all the organs, the frequency of its contractions – 30-36 beats per minute. Two other so-called “gill hearts”, pushing blood through the gills.
Stories about the mariners giant octopus, which they sometimes vstrechGigantsky sprutatsya, could be considered an invention, but in the book J.-Y. Cousteau and F. Diol ‘Octopus and squid’ has the following data. The American scientist, a specialist in marine biology F. Wood, when viewing the archives of the Marine Laboratory in Florida have found that in 1897 at the St. Augustine Beach was found dead a huge octopus. The body of a giant cephalopod weighing about 6 tons has been studied at Yale University professor A.Verrilom. From measurements of the scientist, the mollusk’s body was 7.5 m long and 23 m tentacles, which had at its base diameter of about 45 cm part of the body of the animal caretaker in a form stored in the Smithsonian Institution. On the bank has a label with the animal’s Latin name – Octopus giganteus. Apparently, these data – as long as the only scientific evidence to prove the existence of giant octopuses, but they can not be ignored.
What is dangerous for human octopus? The worst thing in the cephalopods – this is his appearance. By its very nature it is very timid at the approach of a diver or a diver is usually hidden under rocks.
However, an extremely rare cases possible attack on the octopus man. It can happen to a diver when viewed from the hold or cabin wreck, where it hides cephalopods. He has nowhere to go and he defensively, instinctively attacking the person. Therefore, inexperienced divers in areas where there are octopus, you should avoid caves and underwater caves, which are typically used for the shelter animals.
There is a risk, albeit small, that entering into this cave, the diver will be caught by an octopus, its tentacles if you can stay on a smooth surface gidrokombinezona. Once in this situation, the diver should not panic – he has a knife, and it is quite reliable weapon in case of attack octopus.
You should not start the fight with the cut-off tentacles. For quick release of “hugs” the octopus diving experts recommend a strike in his brain, located between the eyes. It is not destroyed by the nerve center, the tentacles of an octopus suckers and will act, no matter what his wounds or applied.
How strong is this mnogoruky “Hercules”? That is what this says about the English writer and a passionate underwater hunter James Aldridge: “I know one person who made it possible for far too long tentacles of an octopus stick to it. Remaining to this day the scars on his abdomen show convincingly by octopus suckers that this careless hunter pulled away with a considerable amount of flesh. ”
Power of octopus suckers repeatedly measured. In all eight tentacles around their adult about 2000, each of which has a holding force of about 100 g
So obGigantsky sprutrazom, the estimated strength of a large cephalopod reaches about 200 kg, but significantly less real. This is explained by the fact that the retention of production involved, not all suckers, but only some of them.
The Spanish schooner with bars of silver crashed and sank off the coast of Colombia. Seven divers have tried to reach the valuable cargo, but none of them returned to the surface. It seemed a cruel fate hanging over the ship, partly covered with the sand at a depth of 64 meters.
Fearless Harry Rizberg, the famous American diver, went down to the bottom. There he found about the ship’s hull skeleton of its predecessor with a diving helmet on his head and a torn wetsuit.
But a brave diver had to hurry to the surface, as his air hose was mysteriously damaged.
Despite this, Rizberg again to dive in two days. Here is what he wrote in his book “Gold lost ships”: “Suddenly I had a strange and uncomfortable feeling that someone close to me there.
This feeling was so strong that I began to spin, illuminating the water column lantern. And then … My God! Because of the vague contours of a bronze statue in front of my eyes grew huge figure. Seeing it through the water, I shuddered. Rising to his full height, full filling the doorway … and covering my retreat, my standing in front of the vision of being a drug addict.
Ugly, wart-covered body slowly swung from side to side, constantly twitching and twisting. The diameter of the monster was about fifteen feet (4.5 m), and its lens barrel of a massive body about 4 ft (1.2 m).
The long sticky tentacles were studded with hundreds of suction cups the size of a saucer. Paint it slowly changed, going from brown and dirty yellow color through light brown to gray and almost white.
Demonic eyes of a vampire, it seemed, watching my every move. ”
Fierce battle began, during which Rizbergu managed by one with his knife to cut three tentacle monster.
In truth, it seems strange the fact – he emphasized the diver “diabolical deceit” of his opponent – that the octopus was trying to attack the rights of only one “hand” as a fencer: he would not be difficult to resort to just eight!
But when the beast finally decided to act like a normal octopus, the diver could plunge the steel blade in the “only non-secure location on the body of an octopus – in the vein of the neck.” But before you give up the ghost, a monster found the strength to shake his opponent’s good, like a baby rattle, break it suit and injure skin. Bleeding and gasping Rizberg lost consciousness.
It was back to his ship’s decompression chamber. Comrade Rizberga, worried about his long absence, sent to him by two local divers. They released him from the embrace of the dead monster. And they pinched holes on suit, which came out of the air …
Much of this story is questionable. And it begs the question: Is not it just awesome invention? On the one hand, it is quite common for the literature describing the underwater adventure, but on the other – reflects the common notion being that the English is sometimes figuratively called «devil-fish» (devil fish).
Let us turn to the novel by Victor Hugo’s “Toilers of the Sea.” The famous battle with the octopus fisherman Zhilyata Hugo spent three whole chapters.
“To believe in the existence of an octopus, you must see it – says Hugo. – … Cobra emits a whistle, it … octopus, a howler prehensile tail, the tail is not … an octopus, the vampire clawed wings, no wings … an octopus, skate in an electric discharge, the octopus is not an electric discharge …, a viper have a poison, a poison is not an octopus, with vultures have a beak, the beak of an octopus is not. ”
We approach this description from a scientific point of view. First of all, the octopus has a poison. This fact was established experimentally in the XVIII century. It has long been no surprise that the octopus can defeat the enemy, the size of which is many times greater than his own, more powerful and better armed.
Once, in our time, the superintendent of Naples aquarium Lo Bianco was surprised to watch how an octopus at a distance of paralyzing crabs and crayfish, placed him in a bathtub. Do not clam hypnotizes his victims? This explanation, of course, could tempt the romantic mind, but do not meet the scientist. Researchers Krauss and Baglioni found the key to solving this mystery.
After careful observation it was found that by attacking its prey, the octopus is always started with, pulling her mouth to some distance, like a gourmet, smelled delicious dishes. If at this moment away from his prey, the victim still dies after a while, with no visible damage. Intrigued by Krauss identified the substance of the salivary glands in the language of the octopus, and easily found out that it has toxic properties.
Venom of some species of octopuses (but only about 200 known species) is dangerous to humans. One young submarine hunter, named Kirk Holland, was engaged in his favorite thing off the coast of Australia, near Darwin. With him was his friend, John Bailey.
Even going back to the shore, John said “blue octopus” 15 centimeters in diameter, plavavshegGigantsky octopus next to him. Deftly catching it, he shot a prisoner to crawl on his shoulders and arms. Then, for fun, threw back Clam his friend. The animal was knit for a few moments of human-to-back at the base of the neck, and then fell into the water. Already on the shores of Holland began to complain of dry mouth and sore throat.
He did not say anything about the bite, but John noticed a small drop of blood, speaking in the place back, where he was an octopus. Soon the young man began vomiting and dizzy, he fell to the sand and lost consciousness. Bailey hastened to take him to the hospital Darwin. On the threshold of the hospital Holland stopped breathing …
Roth octopus equipped with two powerful chitinous jaws, in form resembling a parrot’s beak. They are cephalopods bites its prey, holding it suckers. In this case the poison from the salivary glands, pharynx and mouth gets into the wound.
The bite leaves a small beak damage, but because the saliva prevents blood clotting, bleeding can be quite lengthy. The severity of damage depends on the type of octopus, and, apparently, of its size.
The first signs of poisoning: stabbing pain and burning at the site of the bite. Subsequently, these feelings extend to the entire limb. Tissue swelling around the wound. When intake of poison in the blood of breathing becomes difficult, weakens the voice, increased body temperature. As a rule, recover within 3-4 weeks. However, there are cases of poisoning deaths by poison an octopus.
The most dangerous is the smallest cephalopods – the Australian ring octopus. It fits in the palm, but his formidable poison so strong that after the bite of the crumbs, death occurs within a few minutes. This octopus is surprisingly beautiful. His orange-brown body colored with iridescent blue rings. When the animal is excited or scared, they start to ring phosphoresce. Studies have shown that the amount of venom injected by the bite of a ring octopus, it is enough to kill seven people. Crooked beak of the young killer sharp and strong, easily pierces the shell of the crab, but the people affected by them, usually do not notice its bite, and feeling dizzy, did not immediately realize what had happened.
In June 1967, according to Polish magazine “Dookola holy”, 23-year-old soldier, James Ward, while walking on a boat in the bay near Sydney (Australia) said the water a beautiful octopus smaller than a human palm. Ward put his hand into the water to grab it …
Less than an hour, as a young soldier died. His slew ring octopus. The poison of this creature acts so quickly that even if it were possible to create an antidote, he did not manage to deliver on time.
However, one victim managed to save the ring octopus.
In December 1962 on a beach in Victoria this octopus has bitten a young man, fortunately, the doctor was able to immediately apply oxygen and artificial respiration. Five hours later the patient was out of danger.
When Victor Hugo claimed that there is an octopus beak, he is also wrong. All cephalopods are at the point where they converge arms and legs, curved, giant octopus like a parrot, just up the beak. This is a sharp and powerful weapon capable of easily shred the skin enemy, turning it into shreds, and even crush hard shells of crustaceans.
When the animal is calm, beak tucked away in the folds of the body and almost not noticeable, but that it does not disappear.
A special presentation at the Hugo and the manner of feeding octopuses, “No clutches that are equal in strength embrace octopus. You have been attacked by a pneumatic pump. You’re dealing with a void, armed tentacles … The creature gets to you a thousand vile mouths; hydra grows into a man, a man merges with the Hydra. ” In addition to these thousands of sucking mouths, Hugo gives his octopus another, but how!
It is even more “disgusting” than a thousand others: “In the center of the only monsters gaping hole. What is it – fall? But perhaps the anus? Both! The same hole serves two functions – input and output. ”
In fact, all mollusks, including cephalopods, the anus is always clearly separated from the mouth. And this fact was known to Aristotle. So, the octopus mouth is situated at the place where the tentacles meet him, and anal – opens under the “mantle”.
Between the mantle and the body cavity is formed, a sort of sac, communicating with the external environment through a transverse slit. On the other hand, this cavity opens to the outside trap, still called “nozzle.” Water easily penetrates into the bag through a transverse slot and go to the same washes the gills, feeding them with oxygen. This circulation of water is used not only to the Octopus breathing.
When he was tired of crawling along the bottom and a desire to swim freely, firmly presses the mantle of the mollusk to the body, covering the transverse slot, and then a sharp contraction of muscles pushes the water through a siphon-jet. Since the siphon is directed to the same place and the “legs”, octopus movement gains momentum back.
By repeating this cycle, he swims like jumps, with the natural jet engine. But it can move forward and tentacles. Product selection, falling into the cavity under the mantle, and washed out through the siphon.
But back to the description of an octopus in the novel, Hugo.
We are witnessing a real battle. Our hero, being waist-deep in water, is suddenly in the strong arms of “air” monster, whose tentacles of five, each with fifty suckers, strangled him, squeeze, denying freedom of movement.
In fact, the octopus, as already mentioned, the eight “hands”, and on each of about 240 suckers, for a total of almost 2000.
Octopus from “TruzheniGigantsky sprutkov Sea” is obviously a very special! What should I do? In Zhilyata knife in his hand, but whether these weapons to help him?
“He hits a knife on the tentacles of an octopus. But the steel blade just glides over the surface. In addition to the loop attached to the body so tightly that by cutting them, you cut on your body. ”