Science and religion, practiced in the Soviet era, is gone. Now, no stranger to the publication, in which religious and scientific truths co-exist quite peacefully as those who are clothed in the cassock, or robe, as well as those who cherishes degrees and a Ph.D. candidate in the specialty “philosophy of Marxism-Leninism.”
In the vast majority of such publications, the authors, following another St. Augustine (IV-V centuries). Interpret texts of the Bible and the Gospel as symbolic allusions to scientific truth. Or, to prove the existence of God proposed scheme, which appear thin, ultra-thin, and other astral matter, whose existence is self-evident.
But forty years ago, a prominent Polish writer and philosopher Stanislaw Lem (1921-2006) found a different path: he suggested the creation of a computer model of the universe (see the book “Summa techologia”, which was published in 1964 in Krakow, and was published in Russian translation in Moscow in 1968). In this book the writer has suggested that one day mankind will be able to build a computer model of the universe, which will develop the life, mind and civilization. At the same time S. Lem believed that the designer of the world will take steps to ensure that inhabit his intelligent creatures could not guess its artificiality, that they did not feel like prisoners of the model.
The author of this article, disagreed with the fiction that cares for the designer to protect the creatures that inhabit the artificial universe of knowledge about their “nenastoyaschesti”, at the same time he took the idea of the artificiality of the world for service, and by turning it inside out, put the question: “Is not our own universe model in the computer?” If the creator does not put a sling on the way to the discovery of the artificial nature of our universe, then it is possible that relevant evidence can be found.
So there were seven arguments that are “grist for the mill ‘ideas about the artificiality of our universe.
Two of them concern the question of the divisibility of matter, space, time and motion.
Computers operate in a discrete mode, and the information in them is presented discretely in the individual memory cells. Consequently, the continuity of space, time, matter and motion would speak against this hypothesis and discrete – for. Memory and speed of computers is limited, and therefore infinite in computers viewpoint. Therefore, if matter, space, time and motion are infinitely divisible, “Computer hypothesis” would be meaningless, but if there is a limit – it would plummet on the scales in favor of the idea that our universe – a model in the computer.
As for the discrete nature of matter, everything is clear: it is not “smeared” in space uniformly, but is concentrated in the form of bodies, atoms, nucleons, electrons, quarks, gluons, … Physical fields, which in many theories are considered continuous, as opposed to particles, on closer inspection turn out to be quantized, too.
And what about the outside of the divisibility of matter, space, time and motion? The ancient Greeks Leucippus and Democritus said that there were indivisible atoms. Split the atom. But is our atom – atom is the one who had in mind the ancient philosophers? And there is what might be called, transliteriruya letter by letter from the Greek, “mosom atoms”, which is absolutely indivisible?
In 1899, Max Planck, in speeches at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, and then – at a meeting of the Society of Naturalists in Munich, has put forward the idea of a fundamental length and the fundamental period of time, and calculated their size, which turned out to be, respectively, = 1,6-10 35 m = 5,4-10 “44. These values (as well as some others, such as the value of the maximum temperature), now called Planck and is considered the limit for our world, that is, space and time have a minimal portion, the passage of time and movement in space is not continuous, and discontinuous. Time goes by jumping from moment to moment, between which there is no time, there is even the most of this “in between.” How small are jumping, you can get an idea of the following arguments (see, for example.: IL Rozental universe and the particles. – M.: Knowledge – 1990. – 64 C). If you put on paper “point” (diameter about 0.1 mm = 10 m), this “point” will be 10 times smaller than the diameter of the universe (the diameter of the universe – about 1026 m). If the universe is now reduced to the size of the “points” and during the same time to reduce the “point”, it will still be 10 times greater than the Planck length.
Why are there “point”! Even the diameter of a proton (101 m) in 1019 (edinitsas 19 zeros!) Times larger than the Planck length. That is, the proton – it is a huge education, which consists of 10 ° ‘(ten to the fifty-seventh degree!) Planck cells.
Now back to the atoms Levkip-na and Democritus (the “atomosam”). They are inseparable. Because basically you can not share what is the shortest length 1,6 x10 ° m
So, matter, space, time and motion is not continuous (continual) and quantized (discrete, a la carte).
Matter, space, time and motion are not divisible to infinity, and have limits of divisibility.
And it is these, rather than the opposite properties can be programmed in the computer.
And what about speed of movement?
Until the middle of the XIX century. in physics there were disputes between the advocates of so-called “long-range” and “short range”. Long-range interaction is instantaneous (without intermediaries, through a vacuum), the transfer effects (eg, gravitational or electric) one body to another, no matter how far, these bodies may be located from each other, that is, the principle of long-range acknowledges the existence of an infinitely great velocity. Supporters of “short range” believed that the body interact only with finite speed, and by direct contact or through the physical fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, etc.) – through intermediaries, which, ultimately, also interact directly with the body, they emit, and the body absorbs them.
Proponents of long-range were eminent scientists, in particular, Amps, and pendant. And only the strong Faraday rose to the position of the short-range, and finally secured a position Maxwell, created in the middle of the XIX century, a mathematically complete theory of the electromagnetic field, which proved the finiteness of the rate of interaction.
Infinity – including infinite speed – to program a computer is impossible, because victory for supporters of the “short range” means the addition of one more weights on the scales in favor of the artificial origin of our universe.
But there are even more stringent conditions to ensure that the universe can be programmed in the computer. Among the final velocity to be the greatest – such a move can not be faster. Because of the finiteness of the memory it can be programmed to only a finite number of velocities. A finite number of finite numbers must be the greatest. You can even speak of the existence of a single speed. This – the principle of isotachs, introduced in the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus usage. According to this principle, all atomosy have the same value for the speed, but its direction is changed during collisions, and because the final velocity of the body, consisting of these particles can be arbitrarily small.
So, in most of our universe (not to exceed any other) is the final velocity. This – the speed of light, c = “300000 km / s (more precisely: c = 299,792,458 m / s in vacuum).
There is an infinitely high speed, all speeds are finite.
Among the finite velocity tvuet biggest things that is so, above which the velocity does not.
Both of these properties (as opposed to the opposite) are consistent with the hypothesis about the artificiality of the universe.
Four of the above argument can be called natural – they do not affect the universe as a whole. The next three arguments are cosmological in nature. They relate to the size, boundaries and the behavior of the universe.
Prior to the beginning of the XX century was considered as an infinite universe. “Opened an abyss, full of stars, Stars of not, the bottom of the abyss” – poetically expressed in the middle of the XVIII century, when the conventional view of Mikhail Lomonosov. The recognition of the finiteness of the universe gave rise to a seemingly unsolvable problem if the boundaries of the universe: if the boundary is, what is beyond the point? If there is something, it is not the boundary of the universe, and if nothing else, how can anything with a neighbor?
But this – pseudo, it does not appear if you do not equate the concept of “finite” and “limited.”
The first to go is along this path was Albert Einstein. In 1917 he created a hypothetical model in which the universe is finite but unbounded: this universe is placed in a curved, non-Euclidean space, which is a three-dimensional surface of a four ball. Following the model of Einstein (she quasistationary) appeared W. de Sitter model (Willem de Sitter), A.A.Fridmana, a Catholic priest Jean Le-meter (Georges Lemaitre), in which the universe has expanded (or compressed, depending on the parameters), such models continue to be created now. Proponents of a finite universe believe that its diameter is about 1.53 h1026 m (distance to the horizon of the universe 13.7 billion light years).
Again, remember that infinity can not be represented in computers as well as the memory of computers is limited. And because the finiteness of the universe – another alternative to the dilemma of “finite or infinite,” which is consistent with the hypothesis that our universe – a model in the computer.
To avoid the border with the universe, which exists “in itself” and not modeled in the computer, you need space to be non-Euclidean. However, as the curvature of space so far could not be found.
If the universe is a model of the computer, the program can make, so that none of the bars or a piece of matter under the rules of functioning of the Programme (the laws of physics – from the perspective of the inhabitants of the world model) is not required to move into the cell space, which is not. The problem of the border with “nothing” could be the case if such a program only occur when there is an error in the program – a mistake, which at a certain time step, a fragment of matter “discharged” from an existing cell space and “rewritten” in a non-existent, ie, simply will not be written – a “miracle of the disappearance of matter.” In the case of error-free software “miracle” will happen: The Universe in a computer can be both finite and infinite Euclidean.
But that’s not enough for the lack of endless rate and the presence of an upper limit of the finite speed. In the steady state theory in the presence of infinite velocity “miracle disappearance of matter” is already in the first cycle of the model (I), in the absence of an infinite speed of the “miracle” will still happen, though not immediately (II). To avoid the “miracle” to have the expansion of the universe: the introduction of more and more cell space at the periphery of the universe (III).
Such is our universe (as you can see, God does not like miracles) – in 1929-1931. Edwin Hubble published his astronomical observations: the galaxy scatter. The universe is expanding! Recession of galaxies – one more argument in favor of the idea that the universe – a model in the computer.
Note that between the recession of galaxies and the expansion of the universe there is no complete identity. If the matter is placed in a certain part of space, up to a certain space of time step can not increase – as long as dissipation of matter will occur without the need for new cells. In this case, once-Run galaxies (razletanie matter) is no expansion of the universe, that is, without adding new cell space. The expansion of the universe (expansion in the truest sense of the word) will begin from the moment when they start adding more cell space. It follows that in order to avoid contradictions in the program, it is necessary at each time step on the rim of space to add a new layer of cells of space. The expansion of the universe (not quite identical receding galaxies!) Should occur at light speed.
The universe is finite.
The universe is boundless.
The universe is expanding. It is this combination of properties
The universe makes it possible to program it into the computer.
And what about the theories according to which the universe can not only grow but also shrink (when the galaxy, “came running” would be)? Yes, let them shrink! But at the same time though … “Extended”! The process should be two-fold: compression (removal of the cells of the space) – within the space, the expansion (addition of new cells) – on the periphery. If you add up to more cells than withdrawn, the universe will expand in total, if the contrary – will shrink. (Question about adding space, not only the cells on the periphery, for the sake of brevity, do not consider.)
Summing up, we come to the conclusion that in all seven alternatives considered realized one of the two opposing options, which does not contradict the hypothesis about the artificiality of our universe.
So there is our universe, if it is – just a model? Of course there are! But in the computer “box” with God.
In conclusion, the publication touch on questions about the clock speed of the Lord of the computer and the Beginning and the End of the World.
Properties of the Lord, we can learn Computer little, no more than substance, which we have modeled – on our computer. (Additional information can be obtained only by that religion is called “Divine Revelation”, the question we shall not discuss here.)
Still, something we know.
For example, the power of the computer can be said without the payment: it is enormous.
You can also estimate the lower bound of clock Computer. If 5,4 x10 -44 to – this is the duration of one cycle (more precisely, the interval between two successive clock pulses), the value of the inverse of the magnitude and frequency is a Computer, ie = 1,85 x10 43 cycles per second.
But perhaps this estimate is understated. It may be close to the truth only if the computer is completely in the mode of parallel computing, that is, if all the calculations for each step in the model are carried out per clock cycle, without any consistent calculations. However, it is possible that in reality, a time step in our universe – that is, the calculation of the state of the universe for the next moment in his state at the moment – requires consistent (and possibly in large numbers) calculations are performed for more than one clock cycle computer. And besides, the number of ticks on the progress of the move, from iteration to iteration, may be different depending on the state of the universe at the appropriate time – for example, it depends on the amount of cell space, which currently determine the size of the universe, or the rules transition (the laws of Nature – from our own, with respect to the inner universe, the point of view) that operate in one way or another, different for different moments, the state of matter.
Thus, we can assume that the frequency of the Lord than 1.85 h104 Computer cycles per second (ie the second of our time), and the numerical ratio of durations in the Lord’s Computer (we call this the duration of the true time), and in our universe (we call this the duration of our time ) is not constant.
As for the beginning, that current theories are variants of the Big Bang theory. Some of them are beginning to put a single point in which the density of matter would be infinitely large, so it turns out mathematically, but due to the fact that the mathematical description of the evolution of the universe is likely to deviate from physical reality near the beginning – this is the time zone in which Theory does not work. According to other theories, the universe began with a unit cell with a volume of space “x10-4.1 105 m3. The hypothesis of a beautiful, notogda can be calculated that the cell is placed no more than a = 2.2 x 10-5g of matter, which is 60 orders of magnitude smaller than in the present universe. In order to save the hypothesis, assume that 2,2 x10 -5 g – is the mass of the universe to the outside observer, but it is for internal times greater in 1060, or postulate the emergence of new portions of matter in the course of time.
It is possible that the amount of matter in the Beginning was the same as now, and the universe has never been concentrated in one unit cell of space. The universe as a programmed cellular automata, was a mosaic of empty and filled cells of the matter of space. The path of the universe depends on the initial distribution of these cells and from the rules, “Games”, that is (with our own, internal point of view) from the laws of physics.