In the calm and the west wind, they reached the North-Kurilsk Tsunami. 1952- the smell of hydrogen sulfide and chlorine does not feel impossible. Usually in such cases, Sakhalin hydrometeocenter sends a storm warning on air pollution: toxic gases, it is easy to poison. Eruptions on the Paramushir in 1859 and 1934 caused mass poisoning of people and destruction of animals. Therefore, in such cases, volcanologists call for residents to use respiratory protective masks and filters for water purification. Place for the construction of the North-Kurilsk chosen without volcanological expertise. Then, in 1950, was the main thing – to build a city of not less than 30 meters above sea level. After the tragedy of 1952 water looked terrible fire. A few hours later the tsunami reached the Hawaiian Islands in 3000 km from the Kuril Islands.
Flooding on the island of Midway (Hawaii, USA), caused by the North Kuril tsunami.
Classified the tsunami A wave of a tsunami after an earthquake in Japan this spring has reached the Kuril Islands. A small, five-foot. But the fall of 1952 the east coast of Kamchatka and the island of Paramushir Shumshu were on the first line of the disaster. North Kuril tsunami in 1952 was one of the five largest in the history of the twentieth century. City of North Kurilsk was destroyed. Kamchatka and the Kuril swept away villages Utesny, Levashovo, Reef, Rocky, Coastal, Galkin, Ocean, Podgorny, Mayor Van Shelekhovo, Savushkina Kozyrevsky, Babushkin, Baikov … In autumn 1952 the country was living a normal life. In the Soviet press, “the truth” and “News” has not got a single line: none of the tsunamis in the Kuril Islands, or the thousands of dead people. Picture of what happened can be reconstructed from the recollections of eyewitnesses, rare photos. The writer Arkady Strugatsky, who served in those years in the Kuriles military translator, participated in the tsunami. He wrote to his brother in Leningrad: “… I was on the island Syumusyu (or Shumshu – look at the southern tip of Kamchatka). What I saw there, done and experienced – can not write yet. I can only say that he had been in the area where the disaster, which I wrote you, made itself felt particularly strongly.
Syumusyu Black Isle, an island wind Syumusyu in the rock-wall Syumusyu beat wave of the ocean. Anyone who was at Syumusyu was that night on Syumusyu, remembers going on the attack Syumusyu ocean, as on the piers Syumusyu, and pillboxes Syumusyu, and the roof collapsed with a roar Syumusyu ocean, as in the hollows Syumusyu and Syumusyu trenches – in the bare hills Syumusyu raged the ocean. The next morning, Syumusyu to-wall rocks Syumusyu many corpses, Syumusyu, made the Pacific Ocean. Syumusyu Black Isle, an island of fear Syumusyu. Who lives in the Syumusyu, he gazes at the ocean. These verses, I wove under the impression he had seen and heard. I do not know from the literary point of view, but from the point of view of the facts – all right … ”
War! In those years toward the integration of residents in the North-Kurilsk really not been established. Seasonal workers, secret military units, whose composition is not disclosed. According to an official report in 1952 in the North-Kurilsk population of about 6,000 people. 82-year-old Konstantin yuzhnosahalinets Mondays in 1951 went with his comrades on the Kuril Islands, earn extra money. They built houses, plastered walls, helping to establish concrete vats for salting fish processing plant. In those years in the Far East was a lot of visitors: came to recruit, worked out of the provision.
Constantine tells Sunday:
– All happened on the night of 4 to 5 November. I was still a bachelor, well, it young, came from the streets late hours as early as two or three. I lived in an apartment, rented a room from a family countryman, also a native of Samara. Only it went – what is it? The house started shaking. The owner shouts, get up quickly, get dressed – and on the street. It is not the first lived there, knew what was happening. Constantine ran out of the house, lit a cigarette. The earth shook under our feet significantly. And suddenly from the shore was heard gunfire, screams, and noise. In light of the ship’s searchlights from the Gulf of people have fled. “War!” – They cried. Thus, at least, it seemed the guy at the beginning. Later realized that wave! Water! From the sea to the hills, where there was pogranchast, were self-propelled guns. And along with all of Constantine ran after him, up. From the report of Senior Lieutenant of State Security P. Deryabina:
“… As soon as we get to the regional department, we heard the noise of great strength, then the crack from the sea. Looking back, we saw a great height the water shaft, advancing from the sea to the island … I gave the order to open fire with personal weapons and shouting: “There is water!” While retreating to the hills. Hearing the noise and shouting, people began to run out of the apartments were dressed in what (most in their underwear, barefoot) and flee to the hills. ”
– Our road lay through the hills to the width of three meters ditch, where to go were laid wooden walkways. Next to me, gasping for breath, the woman ran from the five-year kid. I grabbed the baby in his arms – and with it jumped the ditch, from which only strength came from. And my mother had moved to dosochki. Located on the hill army bunkers, which hosted the exercise. There’s some people, and settled down to keep warm – was in November. These shelters, and became their refuge for the next few days.
At the site of the former North – Kurilsk. June 1953
After the first wave is gone, many went down to find missing relatives, release of the cattle sheds. People do not know that a tsunami has a longer wavelength, and sometimes between the first and second place for tens of minutes.
From the report of P. Deryabina:
“… After about 15-20 minutes after the departure of the first wave of newly flooded shaft of the water even more strength and size than the first. People are thinking that all was over (many, grieving the loss of their loved ones, children and property), descended from the hills and began to settle in the remaining houses to keep warm and clothe themselves. Water, without encountering resistance on its way … rushed to the land, completely destroying the remaining houses and buildings. This wave was destroyed the entire city and killed most of the population. ”
And almost immediately took the third wave in a sea of almost everything that could bring along. The strait, which separates the island of Paramushir and Shumshu, was filled with floating houses, roofs and debris.
The tsunami, which was later called by the name of the destroyed city – “a tsunami in the North-Kurilsk” – was caused by an earthquake in the Pacific Ocean, 130 km off the coast of Kamchatka. An hour later, after a strong (magnitude of about 9 points), the first wave of a tsunami earthquake reached the North-Kurilsk. The height of the second, the most terrible, the waves reached 18 meters. According to official figures, only one of the North-Kurilsk killed 2336 people.
Constantine Mondays waves themselves are not seen. First delivered to the hill of refugees, and then with a few volunteers, they came down and saved many hours of people, pulling them out of the water, taking off roofs. The real scale of the tragedy became clear later.
– I went down to the city … There we watchmaker was a good guy, a legless. I looked: his wheelchair. And he lies there, dead. The soldiers piled the corpses in the cart and taken to the hills, there already or in the mass grave, or as yet buried – goodness knows. And along the coast were the barracks, entrenching the military unit. Saved a sergeant, he was at home, and the whole company perished. Covered with them a wave. CTC was there and the people probably were. Maternity Hospital, the hospital … all died.
From a letter to his brother Arkady Strugatsky:
“The buildings were destroyed, the whole beach littered logs, pieces of plywood, pieces of fences, gates and doors. On the pier stood two old naval gun turret, they put Japanese people almost at the end of the Russian-Japanese war. The tsunami threw them a hundred meters. When daylight came down from the mountains, those who managed to escape – man and woman in underwear, shivering with cold and fright. Most people either sank or were lying on the shore, interspersed with logs and debris. ”
Evacuation of the population held promptly. After a short call Stalin’s Sakhalin Regional Committee of all the nearby planes and boats were sent to the disaster area.
Constantine, of which about three hundred victims was on the steamer “Amderma” completely clogged with fish. For people who hold the coal unloaded half, threw a tarp.
After Korsakov brought in Primorye, where they lived for a time in very difficult conditions. But then the “top” decided that the contracts need to work on recruiting, and sent all back to Sakhalin. On some material compensation was not the question, well if you could at least confirm the record. Constantine was lucky: his boss at work survived and regained employment records and passports …
Many of the destroyed villages were never recovered. The population of the islands is strongly reduced. The port city of Severo-Kurilsk rebuilt at a new place, higher up. Without the very volcanological expertise, so that as a result the city was in an even more dangerous place – in the way of volcanic mud flows Ebeko, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands.
Life is a port of the North-Kurilsk always been associated with fish. The work of profitable, people came, lived, went – what, no movement there. In the 1970s and 80s in the sea just did not earn loafers for fifteen hundred rubles a month (on the order of magnitude greater than similar work on the mainland). In the 1990s, caught a crab and taken to Japan. But in the late 2000s Rosrybolovstvo had almost completely ban fishing for king crab. In order not to disappear altogether.
These days, compared with the end of 1950 the population decreased threefold. Today in North Kurilsk – or, as the locals in Sevkure – home to about 2,500. Of these, 500 – under 18 years of age. In the maternity ward of the hospital each year are born 30-40 citizens who have in the “Born” is “North-Kurilsk.”
Fish-processing factory provides country stock saffron cod, flounder, and pollock. Approximately half of the workers – local. The other newcomers (“verbota” recruited). Earning approximately 25,000 per month.
Sell the fish here is not adopted countrymen. Her whole sea, and, if you want to cod, or, say, halibut, you need the evening to come to port, where fishermen unload the ships, and simply ask: “Hey, brother, wrap the fish.”
About tourists on Paramushir still only dream of. Visitors to the lodge, “Fisher House” – a place only partially heated. However, recently upgraded Sevkure thermal power plant in the port built a new dock.
One problem – Paramushiro inaccessibility. To Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk more than a thousand miles to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky – three hundred. The helicopter flies once a week, and then under the condition that the weather will be in the “Petrik,” and in the North-Kurilsk, and at Cape Lopatka, which ends in Kamchatka. Well, if a couple of days prozhdesh. And you can, and three weeks …