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The appointment of the City of the Incas Machu Picchu

08 Aug

Exactly one hundred years to the day when the archaeologist Hiram Bingham of Yale University (USA) began excavations of ruins of the Inca Machu Picchu.
Interestingly, despite such a considerable period, the appointment of the city is still not solved. That’s meaningful hypotheses on this subject put forward for all time studies.
1. Last City of the Incas
Sam Bingham spawned several theories. First, he suggested that the birthplace of the Inca, and then came to the conclusion that this legendary Vilkabamba la Vieja – the last stronghold of the Incas in the struggle for independence from the Spanish conquistadors in the XVI century.
In both cases, the scientist was wrong. We now know that was the last refuge of Espiritu Pampa, 130 km west of the capital of the Inca Cusco. Ironically, Bingham visited Espiritu Pampa in the same 1911, but found it too small settlement, to consider it a legendary city. Excavations carried out in the 1960s and especially in the 1980s by the American scholar Vincent Li, shown that Espiritu Pampa was a lot more than it seemed to pioneer. There were between 400 and 500 buildings, while Bingham saw only twenty. Local residents called the city Vilkabamba Grande – a reference to more than fat, but the archaeologist, and passed this prompt.
2. The Holy City
Bingham also suggested that Machu Picchu was a temple dedicated to Solar Virgos – women’s religious order, which served as the sun god Inti. This theory is largely based on several dozen skeletons were found during excavations. American osteologist George Eaton showed that almost all of them belonged to the fairer sex.
This hypothesis was debunked until 2000 when John Verano of Yale University (USA) again examined the remains and concluded that in fact the men out there as much and women. At the time of Eaton were not yet known skeletal differences between the sexes, which based his analysis of Mr. Verano. The researcher also recalls that Eaton has specialized in European and African remains, and was simply not ready to meet with the relatively small skeletons of inhabitants of the Andes.
However, Eaton rightly noted that some of the skeletons belonged to Machu Picchu infants and children. But instead of considering them as refuting the theory of Bingham, has decided that this is the results of “sins” of the holy virgins.
Right now, most archaeologists believe that the remains belonged to the servants, who were being taken to Machu Picchu from across the country – the cooks, farmers, wipers.
3. Royal residence
Mr. Verano and others interpret the Machu Picchu Inca emperor as the villa of the XV century Pachacuti. Royal court (Panaca) are relaxed, hunting, partying – sometimes for a year, says Peruvian archaeologist Guillermo Cock.
This hypothesis emerged in the 1980s. It is based on the Spanish document of the XVI century, which mentions the royal estate of Picchu, which was somewhere out there, where they found Machu Picchu.
4. The reconstruction of the myth of the creation of
Other scientists believe that the Incas who built Machu Picchu, pursued higher goal. In 2009, Giulio Magli, an astrophysicist at the Polytechnic Institute in Milan (Italy), admitted that it was a smaller version of the mythological landscape. By Malia, Machu Picchu was a place of pilgrimage, where believers could symbolically through arduous journey, which was allegedly taken by their ancestors. If you believe the myth, it began on the shores of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and took place under the ground, and the yield on the surface is not far from Cuzco.
5. Part of the mythological landscape
This hypothesis was put forward in 1991 by the American archaeologist and anthropologist Johan Reinhard. He drew attention to the fact that Machu Picchu was built on top of the mountain, which is almost completely surrounded by the river Urubamba. The Incas called it Vilkamayo, “The Holy River”.
Mr. Reinhard noted that sunrise and sunset, if you look at them from a specific point in Machu Picchu, neatly aligned with the religious significance the mountains during the solstices and equinoxes. By the way, the Incas believed shone his divine ancestor.
“This is an example of intertwining of cosmology with the sacred landscape – almost unique in the Andes – he says. – It brings together the earth and sky, which in the minds of the Incas also had one. ”
6. All at once
Most hypotheses emphasizes utilitarian or spiritual aspect, but Mr. Reinhard and others have argued that both ideas are not necessarily mutually exclusive. “Indeed, Machu Picchu is similar to the royal residence, but tell me why it had to be built in this place, spending so much effort?” – Sharpens the researcher

 
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Posted by on August 8, 2011 in Historical

 

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