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City of Chichen-Itza

25 Mar

The ancient city of the Mayan archeological zone located in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula, which is one of the most important sights in the times of the Maya and Toltec. Here is the majestic and the most mysterious building in Mexico – Pyramid of Kukulkan. Here you can see Chuck Moola – the idol with a flat bowl on his stomach (it lowered heart of the sacrificed), Royal Baths, the ancient Indian observatory sacred well of the victims. This population of Chichen Itza threw various offerings, including their tribeswoman, girls 14-18 years old.

Chichen Itza is considered a holy city.
” Chichen Itza “can be translated as” place at the well Itza tribe. ” The city was founded, is believed to be the beginning of the VI century and was one of the largest Mayan cities. By the end of X century, however, for unclear reasons, life here has virtually ceased. Buildings belonging to this period are mostly in the southern part of today’s Chichen Itza. (Sometimes, the most southern part of the city even called Old Chichen Itza – Chichen Viejo.).
Then the city was occupied by Toltecs, who came to Yucatan from central Mexico. Toltec Chichen Itza have given a second life. In times of Toltec formed the northern part of the city. Alas, by the end of XIV century the town went into decline again and again deserted. In the middle of the XIX century, visited the famous explorer of Mayan ruins American John Stephens (John Stephens). In 1923, at Chichen Itza began serious studies. To date, the remains of the ancient city excavated an area of about 6 square. km. Now Chichen Itza, probably the most visited ancient Mayan city. Here you can take a day trip from Merida as well as from Cancun. For tourists wishing to spend at Chichen Itza a few days there are several hotels. The main attraction of Chichen Itza is El Castillo (El Castillo, which translated from Spanish means “castle”), which is also called a pyramid of Kukulkan (La Piramide de Kukulcan). Kukulcan in Mayan language means “feathered serpent” (most often, the truth is found less than a correct translation – “feathered serpent”). El Castillo is a pyramid 25 m high on the top floor which is a temple. At the bottom of the pyramid is a square with side 55.5 m. The pyramid has 9 levels. On its sides raised four broad steps, each of which has 91 steps. Stairs, going along the north side of the pyramid, below the edges ends snakehead, which are a symbol of Kukulkan.
If the number of staircase steps (91) multiplied by the number of stairs (4) and consider the platform on top of the pyramid, on which stands the temple, as one more step, then we get 91×4 +1 = 365. As is known, the number of days per year is also equal to 365. This coincidence has given scientists reason to conclude that the foundation of the pyramid was based on the principle of the calendar, and indeed the pyramid may have had some astronomical significance. Inside the pyramid can be accessed through a hole in the floor of the temple. There were detected a sculpture so-called red jaguar and svoebraznaya figure-throne, called Chuck Moola.
Pyramid of Kukulkan at the center of a large area. On the west side of the square is the other famous attractions of Chichen Itza – Temple of Warriors. At the heart of the Temple of Warriors is a pyramid with base 40 m by 40 m, which has four levels. Before the Temple of Warriors is a platform with four rows of columns. Column height reaches 3 m. The majority of these columns shows the Toltec warriors, warriors of the Temple itself so well known. When a column supporting the roof. Alas, the roof was gone. There was not a trace and from the roof over svyatileschem, located on the top platform of the Temple of soldiers. Only two stylized snake made in the form of columns and symbolizing Kukulkan, guarding the entrance to the sanctuary.
Here is Chuck Moola, who became a symbol of svoebraznym Chichen Itza. Incidentally, this Chuck Moola was found inside the Temple of the Warriors, where are the remains of previous buildings. On the southern side of the Temple of soldiers is the so-called Group of thousands of columns (Grupo de las Mil Columnas). It is formed by three colonnades, bordering on three sides by a fairly large area. (By the way, with the fourth, southern side of this platform is a building called somehow Market – Mercado). Western Colonnade, which serve as the beginning of the column in front of the Temple of Warriors, stretches south for 125 m and a width of 11 m. Another colonnade runs along the south side of the house, and also stretches almost 125 m. The Colonnade, which bears the name of the North, has 156 columns arranged in 10 rows. (Incidentally, the width of the colonnades – 20 m). Note that in general the Panel thousands of columns is dominated by round columns.
Kukulkan pyramid from the north goes straight road width of 10 m. This paved stone road length of about 300 m leads to the so-called Sacred Cenote (Cenote de Sacrificios, Spanish, or the Sacred Cenote, in English). “Cenote” can be translated as “well”, but the diameter of the well about 60 m. Its total depth – about 50 meters, the water is currently about 20 meters below the edge of the well. Mayan priests here dropping people (mostly young girls), sacrificed to the gods. Therefore, this place is also known as “The Pit of Death”.
City of Chichen-Itza. Beginning in 1923, an American, Edward Thompson, who was, incidentally, a consul in Merida, for several years conducted research Cenote. Several times he descended in a diving suit at the bottom of the pit. Remains of skeletons recovered from the bottom of the Well’s death, confirmed its ominous name. Was recovered as a large number of ornaments and household objects of the ancient Maya.
By the way, at Chichen Itza there is another body of water – Cenote Shtolok (Xtoloc Cenote), located south of the Kukulkan pyramid. It is less than the Sacred Cenote and used exclusively as a source of drinking water. The fact that in Chichen Itza bringing people to sacrifice was common, and show the stone platform, located near El Castillo, which is believed also carried out human sacrifices. This is called the Platform of Venus (Plataforma de Venus), located north of El Castillo, right at the beginning of the road to the Sacred Cenote, and jaguars and eagles Platform (Plataforma de Tigres y Aguilas) north-west of the pyramid.
Platform of Venus got its name in honor of the planet Venus, worshiped Toltecs. Platform jaguars and eagles, so named because of the relief images on its walls. If you look closely, you might discover that jaguars and eagles devouring human hearts. Another ominous place – Tsompantli (Tzompantli), or the Temple of Skulls (Temple of Skulls, in English).
Tsompantli a T-shaped platform located next to the Platform of jaguars and eagles, but exceeding its size. Tsompantli singularity is that the walls of the platform are covered with relief images of skulls. That’s why this building was called – the Temple of Skulls. It should be noted that human sacrifice came to Chichen Itza with the Toltecs. In general, the whole northern part of Chichen Itza reflects the strong influence of the Toltecs.
To the west of Tsompantli is a platform for a ball game (Juego de Pelota). In fact, at Chichen Itza there are eight grounds for ball games, but the venue – the biggest. Moreover, not only at Chichen Itza. This playground for ball games – the largest of the sites in all cities of the Maya. Suffice it to say that the length of this area 168 m and overall width – 70 m. The size of its own playing field is 83 m by 30 m. The height of the walls – more than 8 m. The city of Chichen Itza.
In the east wall of the site is the Temple of the Jaguar (Temple of the Jaguars, in English). It includes two sanctuaries – the top and bottom, which is sometimes called the upper and lower temple of the jaguar. Top sanctuary is located at the top of the wall bounding the site, and enters the playing field. Apparently, this notables of the city to watch the game. Log in underwear sanctuary of the Temple of the Jaguar is on the outside of the site. At the entrance to the lower sanctuary is a stylized figure of a jaguar, which gave its name around this temple.
In the northern part of the site is the Temple of the Bearded man (Temple of the Beared Man). The temple got its name from the terrain inside the temple. Often, however, this temple is referred to simply as the North.
Moving along the road leading to the south-west of El Castillo, we come to a relatively small pyramid bearing the name of the Tomb of the High Priest (Tumba del Gran Sacerdote, in Spanish, or The High Priest’s Grave, in English). This title this pyramid was because, at its upper platform found seven tombs, proving, apparently, for the burial of important people of the city. This pyramid is also called Osuari (The Ossuary, in English), meaning “tomb”. True, this is often referred to simply as the construction of Minor pyramid. Its height is 10 m.
Further south is the so-called Red House (La Casa Colorada, in Spanish, or The Red House, in English). His name was Red House because of the red paint on the facade. Red House – a typical building of the ancient Maya. Its roof is decorated with typical images of long-nosed rain god Chuck. To the south-east of the Red House is one of the most famous sites of Chichen Itza – Caracol (El Caracol), which in Spanish means “snail shell”.
This grand structure is a tower located on a double platform. It is believed that the tower Karakol used Maya for astronomical observations, so this is often called the construction of the Observatory. Unfortunately, the upper portion of the tower is seriously damaged. To the south of Karakol is a powerful facility which has reason to size 70 m by 35 m and rising up above the earth about 20 m. For some unknown reason this building reminded the Spaniards first saw it, the monastery and they named it the Convent (Las Monjas ). In fact, in appearance he looks more like a palace. Wide staircase, located on the north side of the Monastery and separating it as would have two parts, can go upstairs, where the self and is himself “monastery”. The monastery is decorated with ornaments and masks relfnymi god Chuck.
The eastern side of the main monastery building, very close is the so-called Iglesia (La Iglecia), which translated from Spanish means “church.” This building, of course, have no relation to the church, received its name only by analogy with the monastery. It is also decorated with reliefs and masks Chuck. City of Chichen-I

 
 

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