At 90 kilometers from Baghdad, are the ruins of Babylon. The ancient city had long ceased to exist, but even today the ruins testify to its grandeur. “Great city … a strong city,” – said about this town in the Bible. In the VII century BC Babylon was the largest and richest city of the Ancient Orient. Many amazing buildings were in Babylon, but the most striking hanging gardens of the royal palace and gardens that have become legend.
While the most accurate information about the Gardens come from Greek historians such as Diodorus and Verossusa (Sikulis), but the description of the material is fairly meager. Tablets from the time of Nebuchadnezzar do not have even a single reference to the Hanging Gardens, although descriptions of the palace city of Babylon and the walls are found. Even the historians who give detailed descriptions of Lockups Gardens never saw them. Modern historians argue that when Alexander’s soldiers reached the fertile land of Mesopotamia and saw Babylon, they were amazed. After vozvrasheniya to their homeland, they reported the amazing gardens and trees in Mesopotamia, the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, the Tower of Babel and the ziggurats. This was the imagination of poets and ancient historians that blended all these stories into one, to produce one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Only the twentieth century has opened some of the mysteries surrounding the legend of the Hanging Gardens. Archaeologists are still struggling to gather enough evidence before reaching final conclusions about the location of Gardens, their irrigation system, and their true appearance.
Creation of the famous gardens of the legend associated with the name of Semiramis, queen of Assyria. Diodorus and other Greek historians tell us that it had built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Semiramis – Shammuramat – historical person, but her life is legendary. According to legend, the daughter of the goddess Derketo – Semiramis grew up in the desert, in a flock of pigeons. Then she saw the shepherds and the warden gave the royal stud Simmasu who raised her as his own daughter. Royal governor Oann saw a girl and married her. Semiramis was amazingly beautiful, intelligent and brave. She charmed the king, who took it from his commanders. Oann took his own life, and became queen Semiramis. After her husband’s death she became heir to the throne, although they had a son Niny. Then – and then appeared in its ability to peaceful governance. She built the royal city of Babylon with strong walls and towers, with a magnificent bridge over the Euphrates and the amazing temples Bela. When it was built a comfortable way through the seven ridges Zagros chain in Lydia, where she also built a capital Ekbatanes with a beautiful royal palace, and water to the capital held through the tunnel from the remote mountain lakes. Yard Babylon glittering splendor. Niniyu bored inglorious life, and he organized a conspiracy against his mother. The queen is hereby son of power, and she turned into a dove flew from the palace with a flock of pigeons. Since that time, the Assyrians began to read her a goddess, a dove was a bird sacred to them.
However, the famous “hanging gardens” were defeated not Semiramis and not even during her reign, and later, after the other, alas, not a legendary woman. They were built by order of Nebuchadnezzar, for his beloved wife Amitis – Median princess, who longed for in dusty green hills of Babylon, the Medes. This king, destroying city after city, and even entire states, many built in Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar turned the capital into an pregnable fortress, and surrounded himself with an unparalleled, even in those days of luxury.
Nebuchadnezzar built his palace on an artificial platform, raised to a height of four-tiered structure. On bulk terraces, resting on the arches were divided hanging gardens. The vaults are supported by powerful high columns located inside each floor. Platform terraces represent complex structures. At their base lay massive stone slab with a layer of reeds, flooded with asphalt. Then came a double row of bricks, joined the cast. Even higher lead plates for water retention. Samu terrace covered with a thick layer of fertile soil in which to take root large trees. Floors were raised gardens and terraces connected by broad gently sloping staircase, covered with pink and white stones. Floor height reached 50 cubits (27.75 m) and provided enough light for plants.
A cart pulled by oxen, were brought to Babylon, trees, wrapped in a wet mat, the seeds of rare plants, grasses and shrubs.
And bloom in unusual gardens, trees is the most amazing rock and beautiful flowers. Day and night, hundreds of slaves were rotated water-lifting wheel with leather buckets, feeding at the hanging gardens of water from the Euphrates River.
Magnificent gardens with rare trees, beautiful fragrant flowers and the coolness in the sweltering Babylonia was truly a miracle of light. In the chambers of the lower tier of the gardens, spent his last days in June, 323 BC Alexander of Macedon.
The Hanging Gardens were destroyed by flooding Euphrates, which during floods rises to 3-4 meters. Ancient Babylon had long ceased to exist, but his name still lives.