Astronomers have almost 30 years with the help of cosmic X-ray Observatory Chandra watched the remnants of a supernova explosion SN 1979C in the spiral galaxy M100. Star, which was about 20 times heavier than the Sun exploded as much in 1979. And finally, this year the expectations of astrophysicists have been rewarded: they saw the emergence of new young black hole.
On his discovery experts from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center reported in collected on this occasion a press conference. A lot of babies scientists’ estimate of 5-10 solar masses. A fixed them a steady stream of X-rays, they said, it comes from or through the fall of the supernova remnants, either due to accretion onto it a substance with a star-neighbor.
Some researchers believe that the product of the explosion could be rapidly spinning neutron star – a pulsar. In this case, unusual settings SN 1979C to be associated with the emission of so-called pulsar wind nebula. The most famous object of this type can be called the Crab Nebula, far exceeding the age a new object.
– We were first able to observe the birth of a black hole in the universe due to gravitational collapse of the core of a massive star – explains co-author Avi Loeb. – Probably the first time we observe the most common way of forming black holes. Detect this type of black holes is very difficult, since it would require decades of observations in X-rays.
For Earth, a new black hole is not dangerous, said the researcher. From us it is 50 million light-years.
This discovery coincided with yet another story from the field of astrophysics. Almost 30 years of senior specialist on the black holes known physicist Stephen Hawking of Cambridge, the expected results, experimentally proving the existence of radiation, named in his honor. Until now, this radiation existed only in theory.
Over thirty years ago, Stephen Hawking predicted the existence of a phenomenon known as “Hawking radiation” or “Hawking radiation» (Hawking Radiation), the essence of which lies in the existence of radiation emitted by black holes. And recently, physicists have announced that they had personally observed this phenomenon, and not somewhere in the depths of space, but here on Earth.
According to Hawking, the entire universe is filled with pairs of particles and antiparticles, which are born, immediately cancel, annihilate, releasing them in the form of radiation energy. Hawking radiation arises if the particle production occurs at the boundary of a black hole, called the event horizon. When one of the two produced particles crosses the event horizon, it is absorbed by the black hole, while the second particle remains free, while all this happens before the time when the particles are mutually annihilated. Thus it turns out that the black hole emits a stream of particles is actually losing, so part of its mass.
Researchers from the University of Milan (University of Milan) claim that they were able to observe the Hawking radiation effect, creating the antipode of a black hole – the so-called white hole. In contrast to the white hole, “sucking” from the outside all matter and radiation, a white hole completely stop the light entering it, thus creating, the border, the event horizon. In the experiment, the role of a white hole played a quartz crystal having a definite structure and placed in special circumstances, within which there is a complete stop of photons of light. Illuminating light, infrared laser above the crystal, the scientists discovered and confirmed the existence of the effect of re-radiation, Hawking radiation.
Experimental evidence obtained by scientists, of course, does not confirm the existence of Hawking radiation in a pure, original form, but made the opening play an important role in the development of cosmology and other areas of science. So far, the Hawking radiation is the only one, albeit a purely theoretical method to escape from a black hole