The catastrophe of the Black Sea

29 May

Black , SeaAll lotsiyah and atlases indicate that the average depth of 1300 meters of the Black Sea. From the surface to the bottom of the basin of the sea is really an average of nearly a mile, but what we are accustomed to regard the sea has a depth which is several times less, about 100 meters. Below is hidden lifeless and deadly poisonous abyss. This discovery made the Russian oceanographic expedition in 1890. Measurements showed that the sea is almost entirely filled with dissolved hydrogen sulfide, a poisonous gas with a smell of rotten eggs. At the center of Sea hydrogen sulphide zone closer to the surface about 50 meters closer to the shores of the depth, where we start starved zone is increased to 300 meters. In this sense, the Black Sea is unique; it is only in the world without a solid bottom.

Liquid convex lens dead water underlies thin upper layer, where has all marine life. Underlying lens breathing puchitsya, from time to time breaking the surface because of upwelling winds. Major breakthroughs are becoming less frequent, the latter occurred during the Yalta earthquake of 1928, when even far from the sea is a strong smell of rotten eggs and on the sea horizon flashes of thunder lightning, leaving flaming pillars into the sky (H2S Hydrogen sulfide is flammable and explosive poisonous gas).

Until now, there is debate about the source of hydrogen sulfide in the depths of the Black Sea. Some believe the main source of recovery sulfate-reducing bacteria sulfate decomposition of dead organic matter. Others hold the hydrothermal hypothesis, ie proceeds of hydrogen sulfide from cracks in the seabed. However, there is no contradiction here, apparently, there are two reasons. The Black Sea is arranged so that its water exchange with the Mediterranean Sea is a shallow Bosphorus threshold. In the Sea of Marmara and then goes diluted by river runoff, but because the lighter the Black Sea water, and meet her, or rather under it, through the Bosphorus threshold into the depths of the Black Sea sinking more and more salty Mediterranean water is heavy. It turns out that something like a giant lagoon, in the depths of which in the past six or seven thousand years, gradually accumulated hydrogen sulfide.

Today, this dead thickness is over 90 per cent of the sea. In the XX century as a result of marine pollution by organic anthropogenic substances hydrogen sulphide zone rose from the depths of 25 – 50 meters. Simply put, the oxygen from the top of a thin layer of the sea do not have time to oxidize hydrogen sulfide, underpinning the bottom. Ten years ago this problem was one of the priorities in the Black Sea. Hydrogen sulfide is a potent poison and explosive substance. Poisoning occurs when the concentration from 0,05 to 0,07 mg/m3. Maximum allowable concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air of populated places 0,008 mg/m3. According to some experts and scholars to the detonation of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea is enough power charge equivalent to Hiroshima. At the same consequences of the catastrophe will be comparable to those as if the asteroid hit our planet with a mass of 2 times smaller than the mass of the moon.

Total hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea more than 20 thousand cubic km. Now forget about the problem because of unexplained circumstances. However, this problem has not disappeared. In the early 1950’s in the Gulf of Walvis Bay (Namibia), the rising flow (upwelling) issued on the surface of the hydrogen sulfide cloud. Up to one hundred and fifty miles into the interior smelled of hydrogen sulfide, darkened walls. Feeling the smell of rotten eggs had an excess MPC (maximum permissible concentration). In fact, residents of South West Africa experienced while “soft” gas attack. In the Black Sea gas attack can be much tougher. Suppose someone comes into his head to mix the sea or at least part of it. Technically, this is, alas, is feasible. In the relatively shallow north-western part of the sea, somewhere halfway between Sevastopol and Constanze, you can spend underwater nuclear explosion is relatively small capacity. On the beach it will notice, except instruments. But after a few hours there, on the shore, feel the smell of rotten eggs. At the very affluent circumstances, a day, two-thirds of the sea will become fraternal cemetery marine organisms. When unfavorable turn into mass graveyards and coastal villages where organisms live longer sea. In the preceding two sentences estimates adjectives “good” and “dysfunctional”, you can swap it with any position to look.

If the position of a person or group of people who appoint themselves to paralyze with horror the people of half a dozen countries at once, you have to change. But the greed of oil and gas companies as well as any Ben with his incense. Sensing that the end of an era of hydrocarbons is very close, and a couple of decades is measured, then an era of total stagnation, and the complete collapse of the commodity economy, businessmen from the state in agony and despair, threw fuck tube high-pressure fuel line directly under the Black Sea. Greater obscurantism it was hard to expect. It’s a one-time construction of the day off, repair and profilaktirovat that in explosive hydrogen sulfide is not possible. We all have the memory of a passenger train Adler Novosibirsk, completely burned down because of an accident fuel line. Do not be an expert chemist or physicist to understand what happens in the case of a breakthrough fuel line in the deep layers of hydrogen sulfide of the Black Sea. No comments.

Thousands of businessmen, who make money by exploiting the resort of the Black Sea, do not suspect that will soon come to an end to their business, and the Black Sea coast of the resort will become a zone of ecological disaster, for human habitation. This applies particularly to the Black Sea coast of Caucasus, where scientists believe the most likely released into the atmosphere large quantities of hydrogen sulfide. Twenty years ago, scientists acquainted with the calculations of the Black Sea, the scientists built a schedule of decreasing surface water from 1890 to 2020. Continuation of the graphic curve has reached 15 meters in thickness of the layer 2010. And it already is noted near the Caucasus in 2007. This was even reported May 30, 2007 on the radio in the city of Sochi. There were also reports of mass death of dolphins in the Black Sea. Yes, and themselves, local people felt a dead spirit from the sea. In the area of New Athos sea is different than it was 20-30 years ago, in the afternoon; the water is cloudy, yellow, dead fish and even dead animals.

Many businesses understand the senselessness of their ideas of participation in investing spa on the Black Sea coast of Caucasus. Nobody thinks that the coming catastrophe and it is not far off, but very close. Many local residents feel that the Olympics will be held in 2014 as a farewell unreasonable man with the Black Sea. Millions of people living on the Black Sea coast will be forced to move away from the coast because of the risk to die from asphyxiation from hydrogen sulfide and a lack of oxygen. Until then, polls fleeing residents of the resort city could begin mass diseases inhabitants of the coastal zone fatalities. It’s the end of the Black Sea resorts! This will be a worthy price to pay people for their worship of power of the Golden Calf, for their contempt for nature, for their neglect of issues of environmental security. After all, a reasonable approach to business, you can wrap the devil and for the benefit of economy and energy.

In the Black Sea water contains silver and gold. If you extract all the silver in the water of the Black Sea, then this would amount to approximately 540 thousand tons. If you extract all the gold, then this would amount to approximately 270 thousand tons. It has long been developed methods of extracting gold and silver from the waters of the Black Sea. The earliest primitive plants were based on ion exchangers, special ion-exchange resins that can attach to itself the ions of dissolved substances. But the industrial way, on their special technology, the silver and gold extracted from the water of the Black Sea only by Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania.

It is known that at a depth below 50 meters deep layers of the Black Sea is an enormous warehouse of hydrogen sulfide (about one billion tons). Hydrogen sulfide is a flammable gas, which when burned gives the appropriate amount of heat. In other words, a fuel which can and should be used. During combustion of hydrogen sulfide by the reaction: 2N2S + 3O2 = 2H2O + 2SO2 generates heat of about 268 kcal (with excess oxygen). Compare the amount of heat emitted during the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen to the reaction: H2 + 1 / 2 O2> H2O (allocated about 68.4 kcal / mol). Since the first reaction produces sulfur dioxide (harmful product), then of course better to use hydrogen as fuel in the hydrogen sulfide, which can be obtained by heating hydrogen sulfide by the reaction:

H2S H2 + S3 for the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide required to slight heating. Reaction (3) will receive and sulfur from the water of the Black Sea. If the exercise of the reaction on the incineration of hydrogen sulfide in atmospheric oxygen:

2N2S + 3O2 = 2H2O + 2SO2,

then obtained by the incineration of sulfur dioxide:

SO2 +? O2 = SO3,

then the interactions between the three oxides of sulfur and water:

SO3 + H2O = H2SO4

then as we know can get the sulfuric acid with associated heat recovery in the appropriate quantities. In the production of sulfuric acid released about 194 kcal / mol. Thus, from the Black Sea water can be obtained either hydrogen and sulfur, or sulfuric acid with a tail of heat in the appropriate quantity. It remains only to remove hydrogen sulfide from deep layers of the sea. This is initially confusing.

One of the scientific developments comes from the fact that the lifting of saturated hydrogen sulfide deep layers of sea water does not need to expend energy on its pumping. For this academic development is proposed to delete a depth of 80 m pipe with solid walls and one lift on it with the water depth to get in a tube of gas and water fountain due to the difference of hydrostatic pressure of water at sea-level canal and the lower cut-pressure gas-water mixture on the same level within the channel (remember that every 10 meters, the pressure in the sea increases by one atmosphere). This is an analogy with a bottle of champagne. Opening the bottle, we lower the pressure in it, because of which the gas begins to stand out in the form of bubbles, and so intense that the bubbles floated, pushed in front of the champagne. Pumping first column of water from the pipes – it is just opening and will be traffic jams.

It is reported that a group of scientists from Kherson in 1990 was conducted in laboratory experiments, confirming the work of the fountain, until the end of hydrogen sulfide in the sea. Successfully ended and full-scale ocean experiments. A very good example, when threatened the very existence of life, saves the planet a bunch of lone heroes, which in addition also prevents the government and general all around. But where we ask at this time the entire state potential, with its scientific strength, computers, programs.

Skeptics can easily check the data on the fingers, sailed away to sea and lowered into the water a thick tube with a weight at the end. Do not just smoke at this time, so that did not work, as in verse Chukovsky. Many people probably remember the words of the poem Korney Chukovsky: “A chanterelles have a match, go to the sea blue, sea blue lighted. But few know that children’s poetry Korney Chukovsky very carefully studying astrology: how and in katrenah Michel Nostradamus, these poems contain a lot of interesting predictions. Geo-referenced “place of arson” helped Leonid Utesov: “The most blue in the world – the Black Sea is mine!”. This sea until recent times was practically the only place of rest for the inhabitants of an entire country – the USSR. Even the smooth, Ostap Bender It has been noted in the search for the twelve chairs. And for low paid with his life in Yalta at the time of the famous Crimean earthquake of 1928. By “coincidence”, at the time of the earthquake was a thunderstorm. Lightning struck anywhere. Including in the sea. And suddenly there was something quite unexpected: from the water to a height of 500-800 meters were struggling pillars of flame. These are the matches here and chanterelles. Chemists know two types of oxidation of hydrogen sulfide: H2S + O = H2O + S;

H2S + 4O + to = H2SO4.

As a result, the first reaction produces free sulfur and water. The second type of oxidation of H2S proceeds explosively with the original thermal shock. As a result, it forms sulfuric acid. It is the second course of the oxidation of H2S observed residents of Yalta during an earthquake in 1928. Seismic tremors shook the deep hydrogen sulfide to the surface. Electrical conductivity of aqueous solution of H2S higher than that of pure sea water. Therefore, electric lightning most often falls in areas dredged from hydrogen sulfide. However, a significant layer of clean surface water put out the chain reaction course. By the beginning of XX century, inhabited the upper layer of water in the Black Sea was 200 meters. Mindless technogenic activity led to a drastic reduction of this layer. Currently, in some places, its thickness does not exceed 10-15 meters. During a strong storm hydrogen sulfide rises to the surface, and vacationers can feel the characteristic smell.

At the beginning of the century gave the Don River in the Azov-Black Sea basin to 36 km 3 of fresh water. By the beginning of 80 years, this amount was reduced to 19 km 3: metallurgical industry, irrigation, irrigation of fields, city water. Entering the Volgograd nuclear power plant took another 4 km 3 of water. A similar situation occurred during the years of industrialization and other rivers in the basin. As a result of thinning of the habitable surface layer of water in the Black Sea has been a sharp reduction in biological organisms. For example, in the 50 years of livestock dolphins reached 8 million individuals. Today, meet the dolphins in the Black Sea has become a rarity. Fans of the underwater sport sadly watched only pitiful remnants of vegetation and occasional flocks of fish, mollusks disappeared. Few people think like that all sold on the coast of the Black Sea marine souvenirs (decorative shells, mollusks, starfish, corals, etc.) do not have the Black Sea irrelevant. These traders bring goods from other seas and oceans. And in the Black Sea almost disappeared even mussels. Since ancient times, extracted from sturgeon, mackerel, mackerel, bonito, disappeared back in 1990 as a commercial species. (That is, there is no barges full of mullet, which resulted in Odessa Kostya, and generally have long nobody nobody loves).

But this is not the worst! If the Crimean earthquake occurred today, it all would end the global catastrophe: billions of tons of hydrogen sulfide covers the finest water film. What is the likely scenario of cataclysm? As a result, the primary thermal shock occurs volumetric explosion H2S. This can lead to powerful tectonic processes and progress of tectonic plates, which in turn, will cause devastating earthquakes around the globe. But that’s not all! The explosion in the atmosphere would be lost billions of tons of concentrated sulfuric acid. It would no longer be current weak acid rains after our plants and factories. Acid showers after the explosion of the Black Sea all living and non-living on the planet! Or almost everything. Nature is wise! The origin of life on the planet – too expensive with the energy-view event. Almost all biological forms on earth – carbon based structure of the organism, and DNA from the left polarization. But there is, as we know of modern microbiology, 4 species of bacteria with the right polarization of DNA. These bacteria are “live” on the planet in a completely isolated from other forms of conditions. They were found in the acid boiling water volcano!

Apparently, these bacteria will give new impetus to the development of life on Earth if our civilization will not be able to be reasonable and still finish the life of a global suicide!

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Posted by on May 29, 2010 in Historical


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