The discoveries in cosmology have turned our understanding of how the universe originated. New theories bewilders unprepared mind – the mere provision of a plurality of universes which stands. Questions arise on all items that have already recognized almost all inflationary models. Alexei Starobinsky, chief researcher at the Institute for Theoretical Physics. Landau, and Andrei Linde, a professor at Stanford University.
The history of the universe I have heard repeatedly, and from the creator. No, not peace, and the inflationary theory, but this theory is just the birth of the world and describes. Creator’s name is Alexei Starobinsky, it was he who in 1979 published in the journal “JETP Letters” article on how to experimentally find out what happened before the Big Bang. Three decades of inflationary theory, many researchers were engaged in: it was built a few models, it checked in the observations of the CMB, and as a result we have the following picture.
13-14 billion years ago, our universe emerged from a small bubble of high vacuum. The size of the bubble was about 10-27 centimeters or several orders of magnitude larger, and it was then concentrated all the matter in the present universe. That we now can see.
In a fraction of a second vial repeatedly swelled and became the size already in centimeters. This process is called inflation – inflation, hence the name of the theory. Then the universe has continued to grow, but slowly. The energy density decreased, but the very energy of the transition to other types of matter, such as in substance. There were particles of them – the stars and galaxies. As a result, the world came to
Cosmologists say that such bubbles, or regions of space, should be a lot. They even invented a term – multiversity. And in these other bubbles can be physical laws that differ from ours.
Every time I have to repeat this now, I get asked questions that I can not answer. Children’s issues. For example, this: “And what made the walls of our bubble? How do they look? ”
To deal with the walls and other objects of unimaginable universes, I turned to two well-known theorists inflationary hypothesis – to the already mentioned Alexei Starobin and Andrei Linde, has created its own model. Determine happened not so: the creators of individually understandable, but the pictures they draw, are different.
– When we turn from the formulas to the verbal explanations, the latter very often inaccurate, – said to me, Alexei Starobinsky. – It is not surprising that the same formula of words looks different. And Andrew tries to explain the obvious, but I just do not try. Then come to me and say: “But Andrei Dmitrievich explained so simple!” I say that Andrei Dmitrievich for you all too simplified, and it is not so simple.
I’d add that after all there are different models.
Thus, answers to children’s issues from two experts on the device looks mira.Kak edge of the universe?
From the very beginning – the terminology is unfortunate. Imagine that you have an infinite plane. Going myself and go, there is no beginning and no end. This is one version of what people think about the universe. The second option – which it is like a balloon: you go along the globe and return to the same point. There is, in either case there is no edge. And this is for the entire universe.
But that might be? With the entire infinite plane or a sphere, as well as our Earth, is divided into land, water, mountains, lakes, that is, the different parts, which have different properties. These parts are in some cases are in the shape of the bubble, and may have a more artful form. Properties inside the bubble and the outside can be the same, simple geometry will be different. And it may be that inside the bubble there are some fields and the particles they interact differently.
This means, for example, that for those people who are inside a bubble, there are the usual electromagnetic interactions: light bulbs are burning, electric drive trains, and so on. In another part there are no such interactions. This does not mean that other laws of physics, just in different parts of the universe they are implemented in different ways. Imagine a lake, half frozen – ice, and the other does not, the fish can swim. This is the same chemical – water, but fish is a huge difference, it is solid or liquid. The universe may consist of parts where there is one fundamental law of physics, but he is realized in different ways. A sense of this case that other elementary particles will collide, dissipate, not electric … Life is different, but somewhere deep in her same primordial.
Let’s clarify the terminology. Not everyone uses the word “bubble”, I would say that only Andrew here uses it. More commonly used such terminology, which then passes into the concept of a multiversity, or met averse. There was a kind of inflationary stage, and from it emerged many universes. Each of them – the same thing that Andrew is calling a bubble. It’s really not a very good word, because a bubble, we have in mind something with the walls, but there just no wall there. In our three-dimensional space, no, they are in four.
Model this: let raschertim sheet of paper into random pieces, each piece will be the universe. In three-dimensional space, of course, it will be cubes. Here are somewhere inside one of these spaces, we are sitting. This is – in our understanding of the universe. In the physical encyclopedia, incidentally, says it’s just my definition: the universe – that’s all we can see, and what our distant descendants may see. The so-called cosmological horizon. That is, our individual universe – is all that is in one bound volume. But such universes looks bladder wall of the Universe?
One of the simplest models of such. Imagine that there is a hill, and you could fall down a hill to the right, could – to the left. To the right of states to move to the left, you first need to climb the hill, it is difficult, at this energy should be spent. Now if you have half of the universe, where you fell to the right, and half of which fell to the left – so, between them is bound to the wall.
Is it possible that this wall to provide? That’s right you have is the universe, call it, in a red state, the left – in the green. You must climb over a barrier to get from red to green. In many theories of these barriers is very, very thin. That is the wall – it is 10 to minus 30-degree centimeters or minus 15 th, depends on the theory. In addition, the wall can not just stand and move, such as you. Wall wants to move in the direction where there is a gain in energy, and its velocity approaches the speed of light.
It is either you go like a locomotive, this thin wall, or from you. In both cases, it is unlikely you will see. Because if she runs away from you at light speed, then when you get it from any signal, it will be very, very far away. Not that you do not see at all, but you will see it in the wrong place, where she is now. And if she runs at you, then it strikes you – and the more you have nothing and will never see.
This is just one possibility. There is another: from one level to the other transitions can be smooth. Here you go for the universe, and you quietly accumulate changes, you move to another part, and there is not as smooth as we do.
An example of this can be like that. We, in our part of the universe is matter and not antimatter. Then you go ahead and see what they came to the place where the quantity of matter and antimatter the same way. Then you went on, and there – just do not matter and antimatter. You will live in another area, and you have a riddle: why do this in my area have only anti-matter and no matter? What, antimatter is better? And in our world, you’ll ask: Why are we only matter – that matter is better? And in the global structure of the universe are both in different places.