The philosopher Plato, who was born in Athens in 427 BC. AD. like a hero of the spirit is at the origins of human thought. Aristotle was his student, Hegel considered his “world-historical figure”, Schopenhauer called “divine”. And on this bearded sage in leather sandals, rendereth in his praise of 35 dialogues reason, hated poets of the nebula and the falsity of their language, falls the shadow of suspicion as the greatest liar in the world literature.
From Plato, and only from him, comes a fantastic story about the island of Atlantis, where everything was “beautiful, amazing and in inexhaustible abundance.” The people enjoyed “an excess of unrighteous wealth. In the end, the country is “degraded” and suddenly vanished in the ocean.
Many generations of researchers looked for this earthly paradise. Disappeared on the ground looking for Heligoland and the Bahamas, in East Prussia and in Mongolia. Jacques Cousteau tried to find her at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea, Erich von Däniken and does stores it in space.
Like a ghost floats this mysterious continent through millennia. Researchers amateur even identified the exact date and time of day the collapse of the mythical kingdom: 13 hours 5 June 8498 year BC. e.
But none of enthusiasts search failed to go beyond vague assumptions about how the lost Atlantis. For serious as science until now has been an incontrovertible fact: Atlantis no more than a fantasy of Plato.
For his version appears in the recently published book, 33 – year-old Eberhard geoarheolog Tsangger. He studied at Cambridge and Oxford and currently oversees several archaeological projects in Cyprus, Crete and Egypt. He recognizes that for archaeologists Atlantis has long been the “far-fetched topic” as if zoologists have been looking for the skeleton of Mickey Mouse.
However, his new work is not a collection of tales. At 300 pages Tsangger trying to highlight the historic core of the legend. Colleagues call his book “brilliant, exciting and extremely credible.” American archaeologist Curtis Rannels even sure that the book would have on the academic world is the same effect as Schliemann’s discovery 100 years ago. ”
Tsangger indicates where to find Atlantis, and also dispel its mystery. In his view, the story of Plato’s nothing like “distorted memory” of the great three, the very ancient city on the Hellespont, which, according to Homer, in the XIII century BC. e. fell victim to the cunning of Odysseus and the striking power of 100 thousand Greek warriors.
Against the fact that Atlantis is fiction, says first of all an abundance of details in the story about her.
Already during the first selection of “entangled parts of the puzzle” there are many proofs of this identity:
1. Sea power Platonova wonder the city is based on the “twelve hundred ships. Fleet of Troy (according to Homer) consisted of 1,185 vessels.
2. In Atlantis blows strong “north wind”. Similar weather conditions (by the way, not typical for the Mediterranean) are characteristic of blown storm winds entrance to the Black Sea.
3. In Atlantis, there are two sources – the warm and cold. These same sources, according to Homer, beaten and in Troy.
4. In Atlantis was known brass. In ancient times, this alloy is produced only in a single place – in Edremit, 80 kilometers south-east of Troy.
5. Size of the central part of the city of Atlantis, Plato commends the “five stages” (900 meters). Exactly the same size and has a palace complex of Troy.
In general, Plato four confirms the truthfulness of his narrative. Moreover, he refers to a very high authority of: according to him, the first narrator of this story was a leader and lawgiver Solon (640-560 BC. E.). This “the wisest of the Seven Wise Men” forgiven if the information from one of the pillars of the temple in Egypt.
“Original manuscript,” believes Tsangger, really existed and was in possession of the family of Plato. Thus, a great thinker, only used a historical document. This assumption Tsangger ready to confirm a number of evidence:
1. Solon really been in the country of Pharaohs. Shortly before his death, he probably visited the residence of the kings – Sais.
2. Solon was “a relative and close friend” prapraprapradeda Plato. So it is not excluded as described by Plato send the manuscript through six generations.
3. Computer stylistic analysis showed that Plato’s story of Atlantis is very different from other works of the philosopher, creating an impression of the text belonging to another author.
In the temple, says Plato, Solon priests brought to the column with the characters. She was struck a strange story that the “9 thousand years ago the ancient Greeks defeated some well-armed” power “, whose name is Atlantis.
On the same date of the battle – “9 thousand years ago – still tripped and historians who have tried to make of all this grain of truth. For a developed civilization, which is already in the stone age would have a plate for letters and iron axes, in modern science has no place.
Tsangger is amazing out of this temporary riddles. In Egypt, from the middle of the third millennium was run one state solar calendar and two religious moon. And if the temple at Sais column calculates the history of lunar cycles (which is likely), then this period of time should be divided by 12.37. Tsangger defines a new date described the battle in 1207 BC. e.
While the Greeks actually experienced tremendous battle. Only the enemy does not hit them “with the Atlantic sea, and sat behind the walls of the fortress in Asia Minor. Greek Chronicle “Marmor parium” leads the date of the conquest of Troy: 1209 BC. e.
However, news of the Egyptian temple still contains surprises. In the subsequent time, “reported the priests, the Greek cities were destroyed by natural disasters. Disbanded all of the management structure was lost even the art of writing. Yes, and defeated Atlantis sank in the end “in the earthquake.
The list of disasters, as set out in the temple, amazingly coincides exactly with the actual events of that period – the Late Bronze Age. Mycenaean palace culture (1600-1100 BC. E.), With its flourishing centers (Midea, Pylos, Mycenae and Tiryns) was destroyed almost immediately: in 1204 BC. e. Fortress Tiryns shaking from impacts of the underground elements and sink under an avalanche of mud. Almost simultaneously, the fire broke out Pylos. Mycenae and Midea fall victim to fires or earthquakes. Most Difficult floods came down on Troy.
At the same time collapsing extensive worldwide trading system of the Eastern Mediterranean. By 1000 BC. e. once glorious world Achaeans (one. major Greek tribes. – Ed.) with their heroes Agamemnon, Odysseus, Nestor, Achilles becomes almost deserted heap of ruins.
After 400 years of this “dark age” is heard the first voice of Homer. His “Iliad” was written with the help shortly before the writing of new alphabet.
Yet archaeological formula “Atlantis = Troy” seems very bold. But Tsangger gives food for thought. In his version, 80-year-old Solon fits with a certain priest of one of the pillars in the temple complex of Sais, and together they try to translate the hieroglyphics on the ancient Greek language. By Tsanggeru, the result of this work was the epic translation “gaffe”. Solon misinterpreted the meaning of a geographical record of the temple and took with him to Europe completely distorted picture of the ancient events.
The first blunder allowed on the word “island”. Corresponding character denotes the coast or sandy strip and widely distributed as a symbol denoting a foreign land on the other side of the delta of the Nile “(Egyptologist Figure Carpenter). From this perspective, the word “island” is true of Troy.
Blunder allows the interpreter and the next indication of the scene (Atlantis lies at the sea strait). He begins to look for a huge island on the other side of the “pillars of Heracles”. At the time of Solon was the name of Gibraltar Strait.
Achaeans, as we know, do not swim in the Atlantic. Their world is limited to other marine strait, which they also referred to as “pillars of Heracles”, Dardanelles.
This is a misunderstanding, and take away all previous searches in the wrong direction to the west.
Tsangger also draws the eyes to the east to the northern coast of Asia Minor, Mount Hissarlik, “to determine the fate of Archeology, where Heinrich Schliemann in 1871 with the” Iliad “in the hands of the excavated Troy.
The size and significance of this legendary city still remain controversial. Schliemann estimate the number of its inhabitants in 100 thousand. But archaeologist Manfred Korfman of Tubingen, who in 1988 after a 50-year hiatus, resumed excavations, said only a “pirate’s nest” in 5 thousand people.
But pgg increasing number of researchers antiquity comes to the conclusion that Homeric Troy was the focal point of trade in the Bronze Age. It is assumed that she, like the octopus, covered passage into the Black Sea and grew rich at the expense of the collected tribute from the merchants. Schliemann excavated Troy in countless treasures – gold ware, silver vases, luxurious earrings, brooches, diadems. He was so dazzled by the luxury finds that secret from the Turkish customs officers moved the jewels of the country and gave them to his wife, Sofia.
Considerable benefits Trojan treasury gave probably one meteoosobennost. For the sailors of the time it was impossible to enter the Dardanelles against the stormy north wind. Only in the spring and fall, he briefly blowing from the south, allowing you to perform even if a dangerous maneuver. Archaeologist Michael Zibler explains the extraordinary richness of the city “forced Flotilla”. The Trojans are likely to have provided pilotage services and provide shelter and rest to merchants. But where is the port facilities? Even after 120 years after the discovery of Troy, the city is a white spot. All previous excavations concentrated on the palace complex. A hill located in front of a plain area of 20 square kilometers remains almost untouched. Not known how and where he lived a simple city folk. It looks more detailed (in comparison) extant picture of Atlantis. Plato portrays it as a transshipment point of goods and shipping center. The city is awash in gold, jewels, filled with ships and merchants who came from all sides.
Admirable and topographic parallels. As the royal fortress of Troy, the main palace of Atlantis is located on a hill. Lying over the hill plain surrounded by mountains and out to sea.
Particularly striking detail, Plato describes the port facilities of Atlantis. Royal residence stands in the ring canals. The plain is cut up by canals, raids and ship docks. To fill the water maze, according to Plato, the inhabitants of Atlantis have been in the coastal cliffs in the sea lanes.
Plains, where Troy is also dotted with canals. Like Atlantis, coastal cliffs pierced through in two places. But today the traces of this ambitious hydraulic engineering works are hidden from the eyes. For Millennium Plain, where there was Troy, drowned under the multimeter with a layer of sand. Archaeologist Korfman running on funds from Daimler-Benz believes these ditches part of some “drainage system”. Tsangger not agree. According to him, concealed under the alluvial soil remains of a giant port.
And again the author is ready to submit detailed analogy:
1. In Atlantis has 30-meter hole in the cliff to the sea. In three gaping hole in the coastal cliffs, according to researcher Peter Wilhelm Forhhammera, the same size.
2. In Atlantis, the main channel that runs from the sea to the royal fortress, has a length of “30 steps”. And in the three distance from the bay to the palace of the hill is the same.
3. The inhabitants of Atlantis struck the rocks in deep caves, inundating them with water and turning in the docks for ships “(Plato). With such as stone grottoes experienced researcher Troy Heinrich Schliemann.
A dispute between scientists, it would be easy to resolve. Channels of Atlantis were navigable, a depth of 30 meters. And for “drainage ditches” required a depth of no more than a few meters. “A single measurement of the depth of channels, said Tsangger – would be enough to my hypothesis or triumph, or has been rejected.”
Korfman “very restrained” refers to the new theory and opposes its practical verification. It is understandable: while he is in a sweat digging in the ground, is a “skygazer” and requires the excavation.
Yet, on inspection of the formulas Tsanggera refuse should not be: too much evidence already collected in his book. British archaeologist Snodgras from Cambridge have predicted a new discussion on Troy. “Version Tsanggera so well founded – he believes – that there exists a job for specialists in the most various fields of science.”
If the hypothesis Tsanggera find confirmation, mankind will lose one more fairy tale, will melt without a trace of the legend of the lost ground