The Legend of Pandora’s Box

20 Aug

Pandora's ,BoxOne of the issues that have troubled the interest of men throughout history is the creation of the world. The ancient Greeks had their own way of telling the story, which was as follows.

Before they were created land, sea and skies, all things have the same look, which called Chaos, a confused and formless mass, a dead weight on which, however, were the seeds of things. Such as land, air and water were mixed, the earth was not solid, the sea was not fluid or air transparent.

God and Nature put an end to disorder, separating the land from the sea and the sky both two. Then, God and Nature have managed to improve the soil and distributed rivers, mountains and bays, drew the valleys, forests and plains. The air is clarified and the stars were appearing. The fish took possession of the sea, the birds of the air and four-legged beasts of the land was appropriated.

But needed a more noble animal, and then made man. Prometheus took a bit of land, where they mingled with a bit of heaven, and mojándola with a little water, molded in clay man, making the image of the gods, erected, so that unlike other animals, the man is lifted towards the heavens and see the stars.

Prometheus was one of the Titans, a race of giants that inhabited the earth before the creation of man. He and his brother Epimetheus were tasked to make the man, and providing, as to other animals, the powers necessary for its preservation. Epimetheus and Prometheus, the worker was monitored work. This was given to the different animals of courage, strength, quickness, sagacity, claws and wings to one another, etc … But when it came time to give gifts to men, which had to be superior to all other animals, Epimetheus had been so wasteful with their resources and were not gifts.

Prometheus, then, to remedy the situation, and ascended into heaven, with the help of Athena, he lit his torch in the car of the sun, and gave fire to men. This gift made man much more than all the animals. The fire allowed man to make weapons to defeat the animals and tools to cultivate the land, he could leave his house to warm weather, and finally introduced the arts and the currency, which means the exchange and trade.

The woman had not yet been established. Legend has it that Zeus was a woman and sent her to Prometheus and his brother to punish them for stealing the fire … and also to punish man for accepting the gift.

The first woman was Pandora. Was made in heaven and the gods all contributed something to improve it. Aphrodite gave her beauty, Hermes persuasion, Apollo music, etc. … Thus equipped, Pandora was brought to Earth and presented to Epimetheus who happily accepted it, despite the fears of his brother, who was not confident in their gifts and Zeus.

Epimetheus had in his one room house where he kept some items that had not reached to divide the earth. Including a chest. Gradually grew into a huge Pandora’s curiosity about the contents of this box, finally, one day broke the seal and opened the lid to look inside. But at the same time escaped from the box for a multitude of plagues to torment the men, such as gout, rheumatism and cramps for the body, and envy, anger and revenge for the soul, and these males were divided everywhere.

Pandora hastened to close the box, but it was too late, the entire contents of the box had escaped, except one thing that confused lying at the bottom, that was the hope. Since then, while the ills besetting us, hope never entirely leaves us. And while we have some hope, no evil can be defeated completely.

Another version of this story that Pandora was sent by Zeus to men as a sign of blessing. As a gift of marriage, she was endowed by the gods with all goods stored in a box. Pandora opened the box and accidentally blessings all escaped, except hope.

According to several commentators, this is the correct version, because how could a virtue as subtle as the hope to be saved with all sorts of evils?

Greek legend continues that when the Earth was populated have happened ages. The first was an era of innocence and happiness, called the Golden Age of Truth and the law always remained in force, although not bound by any written law or magistrates had to enforce, or punishment for violators.

At that time the forests were felled to build ships, nor to build fortifications around cities. There were no swords, spears and helmets. The earth gave enough to the survival of mankind, without the need to work to sow or harvest. At that age, said the Greeks, reigned an eternal spring, and the rivers flowed with milk, wine and distilled from honey yellow maples.

This was successful, the case for men, the Silver Age, inferior to that of gold, but higher than the Bronze, which will come later. At the beginning of the Silver Age, Zeus shortened spring and divided the year into seasons. The ends were hardened from the cold and heat, and it was necessary to build the houses. It was also necessary from time to sow the grains to achieve a proper germination. And he began to write the first laws were born and the first officials to monitor compliance.

The Bronze Age was more savage, laws and codes are transformed into men are willing to see another attack just weaker.

But it was harder, the worst is the Iron Age. They say that the Greeks at that time the crime was enthroned in human society, modesty, truth and honor will not be considered as more than empty words, the place as human values, they will be replaced by fraud, deception , sickening violence and desire for gain. Sailors sail all the seas and trees will be released from the mountains. The Earth, which until now had been cultivated in common, began to be divided into private possessions and men dissatisfied with the production of the surface, they begin to Horadada to extract the riches within. Then came the misleading iron and gold, even more dangerous. Metals such as using both arms, the war will spread everywhere. The visitor will not be safe in the house of his friend, children and parents, brothers and sisters, husbands and wives wary of each other, the children want their parents die, to inherit; family will love and the Earth is covered by laughter and false gods abandoning the Iran one by one. The last to leave this Earth is Astrea, innocence and purity, the daughter of Themis, justice.

Seeing this state of things, Zeus burning anger and convene a conference of gods. All obey the call and take road to the palace of heaven. The way that one can clearly see in the night sky in the center of the Milky Way. Along the way are, according to the ancient Greeks, the palaces of the gods most illustrious men running from the sky instead living on both sides of the Via

Once the gods, Zeus addressed the assembly, describing the appalling state of the Earth and ending announcing its decision to destroy all its inhabitants to create a new race, other than the above, it is happier to live and well better praise the greatness of the gods.

Just finished speaking, Zeus took one of his lightning and when he went to throw the Earth through the fire to destroy its inhabitants when he realized that a conflagration could well jeopardize the very heavens and changed tactics.

Tied to the wind from the north and the chains that imprisoned let the wind from the south. Soon a blanket of black clouds covered the earth dropping torrents of rain. Plants and grains tended the work of farmers was destroyed in less than an hour.

Not satisfied yet, Zeus called his brother Poseidon, the god of earthly water. This mother took to the rivers that flooded the earth while ordering an earthquake that brought down the flow of the sea on the beach. Castles, men, animals and houses were swept away by raging waters.

Any large building intact was assaulted by the waves and its towers were soon submerged.

The texts and traditions elaborates on the classic description of this destruction until it finally was not only water on the surface of the Earth, only Parmaso, on all high mountains rose above the waters.

They sought refuge only survivors. Deucalion and his wife, Pyrra, both from the race of Prometheus. He was a just man and a woman Pyrra with great faith in the gods.

Zeus saw that he was just devastated and all these were only survivors, let the wind from the north to clear away the clouds and heaven on earth. Poseidon ordered Triton blowing his horn. The waters obeyed, and gradually regained their normal bed, there appeared again the beaches and rivers returned to their channels.

Then Deucalion spoke to his wife: “Wife, the only surviving woman, joined us before the marriage and parenting. Now we are united by a common danger. Perhaps we have fallen on the power of our ancestor Prometheus, and will have to renew the human race as he did the first time. But we’re not sure, going to temple and ask the gods what they should do. ”

Entered the temple, deformed by the cataclysm and approached the altar where the fire was burning no longer sacred. Fell on the ground and prayed for a divine inspiration that enabled them to resolve the situation they were miserable. The oracle replied: “Leave the temple with head veiled, the garments are loose and throwing back the bones of your mother.”

Listened in amazement. Finally Pyrra commented: “We can not obey, how are we going to desecrate the remains of our parents?”

Both then fell into a deep meditation. Until Deucalion said: “O my intelligence deceives me or is there only one way to fulfill this mandate without lapsing into profanity. The Earth is the great mother of everything and the stones are her bones. Those are the bones that we can throw behind us without being wicked … I think that is what is meant by the oracle, and finally, we will not harm trying. ”

Thus, their veiled heads, were unleashed their hair, and carried many stones were thrown on their backs as they walked.

And then the miracle occurred: the stones grew, becoming more gentle and acquiring human forms, like pieces of rock at the hands of the sculptor. The stones that Deucalion threw became men and women of Pyrra. And so the gods, said that the Greeks, repopulate the Earth with a race more accustomed to work.

This old myth has survived to this day not only on beliefs and popular phrases, but has been recreated by many poets and writers.

Thus, the comparison between Eve and Pandora is obvious and is not escaped John Milton, the great English poet, who introduced it in Book IV of Paradise Lost. In turn, Prometheus has been widely picked up by a character the writers. As archetype, Prometheus is a nice power, a friend of humanity, civilization and master of arts. Clear that in doing so, transgresses the will of the gods and ultimately should have the punishment of Zeus.

The king of the gods made him chained to Mount Caucasus where an eagle to peck you ate the liver that was growing as fast as devoured. The torment, the legend says, he could stop at any time because Prometheus knew a secret that affects the stability of the throne of Zeus. Prometheus refused to disclose the secret, transforming the symbol of the will to resist oppression and martyrdom before the magnanimity of unmerited suffering.

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Posted by on August 20, 2009 in Historical


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